36. ODA received in landlocked countries as proportion of their GNIs



Official development assistance (ODA) comprises grants or loans to developing countries and territories on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/Development Assistance Committee (OECD/DAC) list of aid recipients that are undertaken by the official sector with promotion of economic development and welfare as the main objective and at concessional financial terms (if a loan, having a grant element of at least 25 percent). Technical cooperation is included. Grants, loans and credits for military purposes are excluded. Also excluded are aid to more advanced developing and transition countries as determined by the DAC. Bilateral official development assistance is from one country to another.


Recipient countriesgross national income (GNI) at market prices is the sum of gross primary incomes receivable by resident institutional units and sectors. GNI at market prices was called gross national product (GNP) in the 1953 System of National Accounts. In contrast to gross domestic product (GDP), GNI is a concept of income (primary income) rather than value added.


Land-locked developing countries are: Africa: Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Ethiopia, Lesotho, Malawi, Mali, Niger, Rwanda, Swaziland, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe; Asia and the Pacific: Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Bhutan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Lao PDR, Mongolia, Nepal, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan; Europe: FYR of Macedonia and Rep. of Moldova (expected from 2003); Latin America and the Caribbean: Bolivia and Paraguay.


Goal/targets addressed

Goal 8. Develop a global partnership for development.

Target 12. Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system. Includes a commitment to good governance, development and poverty reduction—both nationally and internationally.

Target 13. Address the special needs of the least developed countries. Includes: tariff and quota-free access for least developed countries’ exports; enhanced programme of debt relief for HIPCs and cancellation of official bilateral debt; and more generous ODA for countries committed to poverty reduction.

Target 14. Address the special needs of landlocked countries and small island developing States (through the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and the outcome of the twenty-second special session of the General Assembly).

Target 15. Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term.



The indicator addresses the special needs of landlocked countries to achieve their development goals.


Data collection and source

Data are compiled by OECD/DAC.



Development Cooperation Report, annual, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/Development Assistance Committee (www.oecd.org/dac).

International Development Statistics on CD-ROM, (technical notes, glossary and table of aid recipients), annual, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/Development Assistance Committee (www.oecd.org/dac).

United Nations, Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States, www.un.org/special-rep/ohrlls/ohrlls.


Periodicity of measurement




Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/Development Assistance Committee.