22. Proportion of population in malaria risk areas using effective malaria prevention and treatment measures



Malaria prevention is measured as the percentage of children ages 0–59 months sleeping under insecticide-treated bednets. Malaria treatment among children is measured as the proportion of children ages 0–59 months who were ill with the fever in the two weeks before the survey and who received appropriate antimalarial drugs


Goal/target addressed

Goal 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases.

Target 8. Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases.



The Roll Back Malaria initiative, established in late 1998 by the World Health Organization, the United Nations Children’s Fund and the World Bank, identifies four main interventions to reduce the burden of malaria in Africa:


In areas of Sub-Saharan Africa with high levels of malaria transmission, regular use of an insecticide-treated bednet can reduce mortality in children under-five by as much as 20 percent and has a significant impact on anemia. Similar or greater benefits have been achieved in other regions and for pregnant women. The prevention indicator will allow countries to monitor widespread use of insecticide-treated materials and other appropriate methods to limit human-mosquito contact.


Detection of epidemics requires timely, complete surveillance of malaria cases and monitoring of weather patterns. Reserve drug stocks, transport and hospital capacity are needed to mount an appropriate response. In some epidemic zones, well-timed and targeted vector control activities have minimized the impact of epidemics. The treatment indicator allows countries to monitor detection and appropriate response to epidemics within two weeks of onset.


Method of computation

For prevention, the indicator is calculated as the percentage of children under five years of age in the survey who slept under an insecticide treated bednet the previous night.


Data collection and source

The only data sources are household surveys, mainly Demographic and Health Surveys and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, malaria surveys and malaria modules added to other ongoing household surveys.



Roll Back Malaria, www.rbm.who.int.

World Health Organization Yearbook, annual, World Health Organization (www3.who.int/whosis).

The State of the World’s Children, annual, United Nations Children’s Fund (www.unicef.org/publications).

United Nations Children’s Fund, www.childinfo.org and www.unicef.org.

Human Development Report, annual, United Nations Development Programme (www.undp.org).


Periodicity of measurement

Data on coverage of insecticide-treated bednets and treatment data should be collected about every two to three years.


Gender issues

Girls may have greater exposure than boys to malaria-infested areas because of their role in the provision of fuel, water and other supplies.


Disaggregation issues

Disparities by gender, age, mother’s education and area of residence should be assessed.


International data comparisons

World Health Statistics, annual, World Health Organization (www3.who.int/whosis). [Can’t find this publication. Do you mean World Health Report? www.global-health.gov/worldhealthstatistics.shtml]

Human Development Report, annual, United Nations Development Programme (www.undp.org).

The State of the World’s Children, annual, United Nations Children’s Fund (www.unicef.org/publications).


Comments and limitations

Survey data are subject to sampling errors and are undertaken only every few years. As the data on bednet use are new, no trend data are yet available.



Ministries of health.

United Nations Children’s Fund.

World Health Organization.