Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals

 

Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and Sources

 

 

 

 

 

******

United Nations

 

 

 

Draft 11:07:03

United Nations Development Group

 

United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)

 

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)

 

Department of International Economic and Social Affairs

Statistics Division

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Indicators for Monitoring the

Millennium Development Goals

 

Definitions, Rationale, Concepts and Sources

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

United Nations

 

New York

 

 2003


Foreword

 

Building on the United Nations global conferences of the 1990s, the Millennium Declaration of 2002 marked a strong commitment to the right to development, to peace and security, to gender equality, to the eradication of the many dimensions of poverty and to sustainable human development. The Declaration, adopted by 147 heads of state and 189 states of the United Nations, mainstreams 8 mutually reinforcing development goals and 18 related targets into the global development agenda.

 

To monitor progress towards these goals and targets, the United Nations system, including the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, as well as the Development Assistance Committee of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/DAC), came together under the Office of the Secretary General and agreed on 48 quantitative indicators. The indicators built upon other global indicators developed in response to previous global conferences. The goals, targets and indicators were presented by Secretary-General Kofi Annan to the General Assembly in September 2001 in the Road Map Towards the Implementation of the United Nations Millennium Declaration.

 

This handbook provides guidance on the definitions, rationale, concepts and sources of the data for the indicators that are being used to monitor the goals and targets. It expands on an earlier exercise to provide the metadata for the socioeconomic indicators that make up the Common Country Assessment Indicator Framework. The indicators for goals 1–7 are a subset of this framework. The Common Country Assessment is an established, evidence-based process for reviewing and analysing a country’s development situation with a focus on people, especially poor people.

 

Preparation of this handbook was directed by an Inter-Agency Working Group of the United Nations Development Group, including the World Bank, chaired by the United Nations Population Fund and co-chaired by the United Nations Statistics Division and the United Nations Development Programme.

 

 

 

On behalf of the United Nations Development Group, I would like to thank all the agencies and individuals (see below) who contributed to this handbook, including the Department for International Development of the government of the United Kingdom, which funded the services of a short-term consultant to provide inputs for this handbook.

 

I believe that this very tangible example of interagency collaboration will prove useful to the international community by strengthening national statistical capacity and improving monitoring. And I sincerely hope that this will be sustained through future revisions in the same spirit.

 

 

Mark Malloch-Brown

 

 

Administrator

United Nations Development Programme

Chairman, United Nations Development Group

July 2003


Members and contributors to the United Nations Development Group

Working Group on Indicators

 

United Nations Population Fund

Richard Leete, Chair

Iqbal Alam

Kourtoum Nacro

Mickie Schoch

 

Department of International Economic and Social Affairs

Statistics Division

Stefan Schweinfest, Vice Chair

Robert Johnston

Giselle Kamanou

Francesca Perucci

 

United Nations Development Programme

Diana Alarcon, Vice Chair

Jan Vandemoortele

Haishan Fu

 

United Nations Development Group Office

Gerton van den Akker

Alain Nickels

Heidi Swindells

Tom Griffin (consultant)

 

Executive Office of the Secretary-General

Madhushree Dasgupta

 

United Nations Children’s Fund

Gareth Jones

Tessa Wardlaw

 

World Food Programme

Patricia Kennedy

 

United Nations Human Settlements Programme

Laura Licchi

 

United Nations Fund for the Advancement of Women

Suzette Mitchell

 

Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights

Goro Onojima

 

Office of Drug Control and Crime Prevention

Andrea Treso

 

International Labour Organisation

Sophia Lawrence

 

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Toshiko Murata

 

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

Denise Lievesley

José Pessoa

 

United Nations Environment Programme

Stuart Chape

Marion Cheatle

Volodymyr Demkine

Eugene Fosnight

Phillip Fox

Gerald Mutisya

 

World Bank

Neil Fantom

Makiko Harrison

Eric Swanson

 

World Health Organization

Christopher Murray

Carla Abou Zahr

 

World Trade Organization

Guy Karsenty

 

United Nations Convention on Climate Change

James Grabert

 

International Telecommunication Union

Esperanza Magpantay

 

Inter-Parliamentary Union

Kareen Jabre

 

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

Brian Hammond

Simon Scott

 

Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS

Peter Ghys

 


 

Contents

Foreword. iii

Introduction. 1

Goals and targets. 3

Abbreviations. 6

1a. Proportion of population below $1 (PPP) per day. 7

1b. Poverty headcount ratio (% of population below the national poverty line) 10

2. Poverty gap ratio (incidence x depth of poverty) 12

3. Share of poorest quintile in national consumption. 14

4. Prevalence of underweight children under five years of age. 16

5. Proportion of the population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption. 18

6. Net enrolment ratio in primary education. 21

7a. Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach grade 5. 24

7b. Primary completion rate. 27

8. Literacy rate of 15–24 year-olds. 29

9. Ratio of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education. 32

10. Ratio of literate women to men 15–24 year olds. 35

11. Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector 37

12. Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments. 40

13. Under-five mortality rate. 42

14. Infant mortality rate. 45

15. Proportion of 1 year-old children immunised against measles. 48

16. Maternal mortality ratio. 50

17. Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel 53

18. HIV prevalence among 15–24 year old pregnant women. 55

19. Condom use rate of the contraceptive prevalence rate. 58

19a. Condom use at last high-risk sex. 61

19b. Percentage of population aged 15–24 with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS. 63

19c. Contraceptive prevalence rate. 65

20. Ratio of school attendance of orphans to school attendance of non-orphans aged 10–14. 67

21. Prevalence and death rates associated with malaria. 69

22. Proportion of population in malaria risk areas using effective malaria prevention and treatment measures  72

23. Prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis. 74

24. Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured under directly-observed treatment short courses (DOTS) 76

25. Proportion of land area covered by forest 78

26. Ratio of area protected to maintain biological diversity to surface area. 80

27. Energy use (metric ton oil equivalent) per $1 GDP (PPP) 82

28. Carbon dioxide emissions (per capita) and consumption of ozone-depleting CFCs (ODP tons) 84

29. Proportion of the population using solid fuels (data not yet available) 87

30. Proportion of the population with sustainable access to an improved water source, urban and rural 89

31. Proportion of the urban and rural population with access to improved sanitation. 92

32. Proportion of households with access to secure tenure. 95

33. Net ODA, total and to LDCs, as a percentage of OECD/DAC donors’ gross national income. 97

34. Proportion of total bilateral, sector-allocable ODA of OECD/DAC donors to basic social services (basic education, primary health care, nutrition, safe water and sanitation) 99

35. Proportion of bilateral ODA of OECD/DAC donors that is untied. 101

36. ODA received in landlocked countries as proportion of their GNIs. 103

37. ODA received in small island developing States as proportion of their GNIs. 105

38. Proportion of total developed country imports (by value and excluding arms) from developing countries and LDCs admitted free of duties. 107

39. Average tariffs imposed by developed countries on agricultural products and clothing from developing countries  109

40. Agricultural support estimate for OECD countries as a percentage of their GDP. 111

41. Proportion of ODA provided to help build trade capacity. 113

42. Total number of countries that have reached their HIPC decision points and number that have reached their completion points (cumulative) 116

43. Debt relief committed under HIPC initiative, US$. 118

44. Debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and services. 120

45. Unemployment of 15–24 year-olds, each sex and total 122

46. Proportion of population with access to affordable, essential drugs on a sustainable basis. 125

47. Telephone lines and cellular subscribers per 100 population. 127

48a. Personal computers in use per 100 population. 129

48b. Internet users per 100 population. 130

Annex 1. Additional Socioeconomic Common Country Assessment (CCA) Indicators. 132

CCA 19. Proportion of children under 15 who are working. 132

CCA 20. Contraceptive prevalence rate. 134

CCA 24. Condom use rate of the contraceptive prevalence rate. 134

CCA 30. Employment to population of working age ratio. 137

CCA 31. Unemployment rate. 139

CCA 32. Informal sector employment as a percentage of employment 141

CCA 41. Number of persons per room, or average floor area per person. 143

CCA 43. Number of intentional homicides per 100,000 inhabitants. 145

Annex 2. Household surveys and other national data sources. 147

Annex 3. Web sites (see also references in the metadata sheets) 153

Annex 4. World summits and conferences. 156

 




 


This handbook contains basic metadata on the agreed list of quantitative indicators for monitoring progress towards the 8 goals and 18 targets derived from the Millennium Declaration (table 1). The list of indicators, developed using several criteria, is not intended to be prescriptive but to take into account the country setting and the views of various stakeholders in preparing country-level reports.

 

Five main criteria guided the selection of indicators. They should:

·        Provide relevant and robust measures of progress towards the targets of the Millennium Development Goals.

·        Be clear and straightforward to interpret and provide a basis for international comparison.

·        Be broadly consistent with other global lists and avoid imposing an unnecessary burden on country teams, governments and other partners.

·        Be based to the greatest extent possible on international standards, recommendations and best practices.

·        Be constructed from well-established data sources, be quantifiable and be consistent to enable measurement over time.

 

The handbook is designed to provide the United Nations country teams and national and international stakeholders with guidance on the definitions, rationale, concepts and sources of the data for the indicators that are being used to monitor the Millennium Development Goals. Just as the indicator list is dynamic and will necessarily evolve in response to changing national situations, so will the metadata change over time as concepts, definitions and methodologies change.

 

A consultation process, generally involving the national statistical office or other national authority, should be initiated in the selection and compilation of country-specific indicators. The consultation should take into account national development priorities, the suggested list of indicators and the availability of data. The United Nations country team should work collaboratively to help build ownership and consensus on the selected indicators.

 

National sources

Country data should be used for compiling the indicators where such data are available and of reasonable quality. The data source for each indicator and the quantitative value of the indicator should be decided by consensus among the key stakeholders, especially the national statistical system. Ownership of the data and related indicators should be with the national statistical system.

 

For any given indicator there may be a wide range of data sources available within the country, and each source should be critically reviewed. Existing data sources and reporting systems should be used where possible, particularly where line ministries have their own statistical systems. International data sources should be consulted for validation and in the absence of national sources.

 

 

Metadata sheets

For each indicator used to measure progress towards the targets and goals, the handbook provides all or some of the following information:

·        A simple operational definition.

·        The goal and target it addresses.

·        The rationale for use of the indicator.

·        The method of computation.

·        Sources of data.

·        References, including relevant international Web sites.

·        Periodicity of measurement.

·        Gender and disaggregation issues.

·        Limitations of the indicator.

·        National and international agencies involved in the collection, compilation or dissemination of the data.

 

The intention is not to provide an exhaustive amount of information for any of these, but to provide a reference point and guidance for the United Nations country teams and national stakeholders. The amount of information varies by indicator and tends to reflect the extent of national and international debate on its relevance. Limited information is available for some of the less well-established indicators. With further use of the indicators and greater recognition of the need for such data, fuller information is expected to become available.

 

Annex 1 provides metadata for some additional indicators included in the Common Country Assessment Indicator Framework; the indicators for Millennium Development Goals 1–7 are a subset of this framework. Annex 2 supplies information on the household surveys and national sources mentioned in the metadata for constructing the indicators. Annex 3 gives the Web addresses of the agencies involved. Annex 4 lists the major world summits and conferences that have helped to shape the Millennium Development Goals and indicators.

 



Table 1. The Millennium Development Goals

 

Goals and targets

Indicators for monitoring progress

(from the Millennium Declaration)

Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

Target 1: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of

1a. Proportion of population below $1 (PPP) per daya

1b. Poverty headcount ratio (% of population below the national poverty line)

people whose income is less than less than one dollar a day

2. Poverty gap ratio [incidence x depth of poverty]

 

3. Share of poorest quintile in national consumption

Target 2: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of

4. Prevalence of underweight children under-five years of age

people who suffer from hunger

5. Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption

Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education

Target 3: Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere,

6. Net enrolment ratio in primary education

boys and girls alike, will be able to complete

7a. Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach grade 5

7b. Primary completion rate

a full course of primary schooling

8. Literacy rate of 15–24 year-olds

Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women

Target 4: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and

9. Ratios of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education

secondary education preferably by 2005 and in all

10. Ratio of literate women to men 15–24 years old

levels of education no later than 2015

11. Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector

 

12. Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament

Goal 4: Reduce child mortality

 

Target 5: Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015,

13. Under-five mortality rate

the under-five mortality rate

14. Infant mortality rate

 

15. Proportion of 1 year-old children immunised against measles

Goal 5: Improve maternal health

 

Target 6: Reduce by three-quarters, between 1990 and

16. Maternal mortality ratio

2015, the maternal mortality ratio

17. Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel

Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases

Target 7: Have halted by 2015 and begun to

18. HIV prevalence among 15–24 year old pregnant women

reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS

19. Condom use rate of the contraceptive prevalence rateb

 

 19a.Condom use at last high-risk sex

 

 19b.Percentage of population aged 15-24 with comprehensive correct knowledge

 

     of HIV/AIDSc

 19c. Contraceptive prevalence rate

 

20. Ratio of school attendance of orphans to school attendance of non-orphans

 

  aged 10–14

Target 8: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse

21. Prevalence and death rates associated with malaria

the incidence of malaria and other major diseases

22. Proportion of population in malaria risk areas using effective malaria prevention and

 

   treatment measuresd

 

23. Prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis

 

24. Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured under directly observed treatment

 

   treatment short course (DOTS)

Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability

Target 9: Integrate the principles of sustainable

25. Proportion of land area covered by forest

development into country policies and programmes

26. Ratio of area protected to maintain biological diversity to surface area

and reverse the loss of environmental resources

27. Energy use (kg oil equivalent) per $1 GDP (PPP)

 

28. Carbon dioxide emissions (per capita) and consumption of ozone-depleting CFCs

 

   (ODP tons)

 

29. Proportion of population using solid fuels

Target 10: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people

30. Proportion of population with sustainable access to an improved water source, urban

without sustainable access to safe drinking water

   and rural

and basic sanitation

31. Proportion of urban and rural population with access to improved sanitation

Target 11 By 2020, to have achieved a significant

32. Proportion of households with access to secure tenure

improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers

 


 

Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development

Target 12: Develop further an open, rule-based,

Some of the indicators listed below are monitored separately for the least developed

predictable, non-discriminatory trading

countries (LDCs), Africa, landlocked countries and small island developing States.

and financial system

 

 

Official development assistance

Includes a commitment to good governance, development,

33. Net ODA, total and to LDCs, as percentage of OECD/DAC donors’ gross national

and poverty reduction – both nationally and internationally

   income

 

34. Proportion of total bilateral, sector-allocable ODA of OECD/DAC donors to basic

Target 13: Address the special needs of the least developed

   social services (basic education, primary health care, nutrition, safe water and   

   sanitation)

countries

35. Proportion of bilateral ODA of OECD/DAC donors that is untied

Includes: tariff and quota free access for least developed

36. ODA received in landlocked countries as proportion of their GNIs

countries’ exports; enhanced programme of debt relief for HIPC

37. ODA received in small island developing States as proportion of their GNIs

and cancellation of official bilateral debt; and more generous

 

ODA for countries committed to poverty reduction

Market access

 

38. Proportion of total developed country imports (by value and excluding arms) from

Target 14: Address the special needs of landlocked

  developing countries and LDCs, admitted free of duties

countries and small island developing States (through the

39. Average tariffs imposed by developed countries on agricultural products and textiles

Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development

  and clothing from developing countries

of Small Island Developing States and the outcome of the

40. Agricultural support estimate for OECD countries as percentage of their GDP

twenty-second special session of the General Assembly)

41. Proportion of ODA provided to help build trade capacity

 

 

Target 15: Deal comprehensively with the debt problems

Debt sustainability

of developing countries through national and

42. Total number of countries that have reached their HIPC decision points and

international measures in order to make debt sustainable

number that have reached their HIPC completion points (cumulative)

in the long term

43. Debt relief committed under HIPC initiative, US$

 

44. Debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and services

Target 16: In co-operation with developing countries, develop

45. Unemployment rate of 15-24 year-olds, each sex and totale

and implement strategies for decent and productive work for

 

youth

 

Target 17: In co-operation with pharmaceutical companies,

46. Proportion of population with access to affordable, essential drugs on a

provide access to affordable, essential drugs in

sustainable basis

developing countries

 

Target 18: In co-operation with the private sector, make

47. Telephone lines and cellular subscribers per 100 population

available the benefits of new technologies, especially

48a. Personal computers in use per 100 population and Internet users per 100 population

information and communications

48b. Internet users per 100 population

 

The Millennium Development Goals and targets come from the Millennium Declaration signed by 189 countries, including 147 Heads of State, in September 2000 (www.un.org/documents/ga/res/55/a55r002.pdf - A/RES/55/2). The goals and targets are inter-related and should be seen as a whole. They represent a partnership between the developed countries and the developing countries determined, as the Declaration states, “to create an environment – at the national and global levels alike – which is conducive to development and the elimination of poverty.”

 

a For monitoring country poverty trends, indicators based on national poverty lines should be used, where available.

b Amongst contraceptive methods, only condoms are effective in preventing HIV transmission. The contraceptive prevalence rate is also useful in tracking progress in other health, gender and poverty goals. Because the condom use rate is only measured amongst women in union, it is supplemented by an indicator on condom use in high-risk situations (indicator 19a) and an indicator on HIV/AIDS knowledge (indicator 19b).

c This indicator is defined as the percentage of population aged 15-24 who correctly identify the two major ways of preventing the sexual transmission of HIV (using condoms and limiting sex to one faithful, uninfected partner), who reject the two most common local misconceptions about HIV transmission, and who know that a healthy-looking person can transmit HIV. However, since there are currently not a sufficient number of surveys to be able to calculate the indicator as defined above, UNICEF, in collaboration with UNAIDS and WHO, produced two proxy indicators that represent two components of the actual indicator. They are the following: a) Percentage of women and men 15-24 who know that a person can protect herself from HIV infection by “consistent use of condom”. b) Percentage of women and men 15-24 who know a healthy-looking person can transmit HIV. Data for this year’s report are only available on women.

d Prevention to be measured by the percentage of children under 5 sleeping under insecticide-treated bednets; treatment to be measured by percentage of children under 5 who are appropriately treated.

e An improved measure of the target is under development by ILO for future years.




Abbreviations

 

CCA                            (UN) Common Country Assessment

CFCs                           Chlorofluorocarbons

c.i.f.                              Cost, insurance and freight

CWIQ                         Core Welfare Indicators Questionnaire Survey in Africa

DAC                            Development Assistance Committee

DHS                            Demographic and Health Survey

DOTS                          Directly observed treatment, short course (World Health Organization detection and treatment strategy for tuberculosis)

DPT                             Diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus vaccine

EPI                              Expanded Programme on Immunization

FAO                            Food and Agriculture Organization

f.o.b.                            Free-on-board

GDP                            Gross domestic product

GNI                             Gross national income

GNP                            Gross national product

HBS                             Household Budget Survey

HIPC                           Highly indebted poor country

ICES                            Income Consumption and Expenditure Survey

IMF                             International Monetary Fund

IPU                              Inter-Parliamentary Union

ISCED 97                    International Standard Classification of Education 1997 version

ISIC                             International Standard Industrial Classification

ITU                              International Telecommunication Union

LDC                            Least developed countries

LFS                             Labour Force Surveys

LSMS                          Living Standards Measurement Study

MICS                          Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey

ODA                            Official development assistance

ODP                            Ozone-depleting potential

OECD                         Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

PC                               Personal computer

PPP                             Purchasing power parity

TCBDB                       Trade Capacity Building Database

TRAINS                      Trade Analysis and Information System

UN-HABITAT            United Nations Human Settlements Programme

UNDP                         United Nations Development Programme

UNESCO                    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

UNFPA                       United Nations Population Fund

UNICEF                      United Nation’s Children’s Fund

WHO                           World Health Organization



1a. Proportion of population below $1 (PPP) per day

 

Definition

Proportion of population below $1 per day is the percentage of the population living on less than $1.08 a day at 1993 international prices. The $1 a day poverty line is compared to consumption or income per person and includes consumption from own production and income in kind. Because this poverty line has fixed purchasing power across countries or areas, the $1 a day poverty line is often called an “absolute poverty line”.

 

Goal/target addressed

Goal 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger.

Target 1. Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day.

 

Rationale

The indicator allows for comparing and aggregating progress across countries in reducing the number of people living under extreme poverty and for monitoring trends at the global level.

 

Method of computation

The World Bank regularly estimates poverty based on the $1 a day poverty line. Estimates are based on incomes or consumption levels derived from household surveys. Whenever possible, consumption is preferred to income for measuring poverty. When consumption data are not available, income is used.

 

Consumption, which includes consumption for own production, or income per person, and its distribution are estimated from household surveys. Household consumption or income is divided by the number of people in the household to establish the income per person.

 

The distribution of consumption or income is estimated using empirical Lorenz (distribution) curves weighted by household size. In all cases measures of poverty to obtain Lorenz curves are calculated from primary data sources rather than existing estimates.

 

Poverty in a country is estimated by converting the $1 a day poverty line to local currency using the latest purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates for consumption taken from World Bank estimates. Local consumer price indices are then used to adjust the international poverty line in local currency to prices prevailing around the time of the surveys. This international poverty line is used to identify how many people are below the $1 a day threshold.

 

The PPP-based international poverty line is required only to allow comparisons across countries and to produce estimates of poverty at the aggregate level. Most countries also set their own poverty lines (see indicator 1b).

 

Data collection and source

The indicator is produced by the World Bank’s Development Research Group based on data obtained from government statistical offices and World Bank country departments. It is not normally calculated by national agencies.

 

Data on household income, consumption and expenditure, including income in kind, are generally collected through household budget surveys or other surveys covering income and expenditure.

 

When available, household consumption data are preferred to income data. National statistical offices, sometimes in conjunction with other national or international agencies, usually undertake such surveys.

 

Only surveys that meet the following criteria are used: they are nationally representative, include a sufficiently comprehensive consumption or income aggregate (including consumption or income from own production), and allow for the construction of a correctly weighted distribution of consumption or income per person.

 

The most recent estimates of PPP for developing countries are based on data collected between 1993 and 1996, standardized to 1993 international prices. Global price comparisons are carried out by the International Comparisons Program of the World Bank and others. New estimates of PPPs are expected in 2006.

 

References

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank, table 2.6 (www.worldbank.org/data).

Poverty Reduction and the World Bank: Operationalizing the World Development Report 2000/01, 2001, World Bank.

Poverty Reduction Strategy Sourcebook, “Poverty measurement and analysis”, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/poverty/strategies/sourcons.htm).

Human Development Report, annual, United Nations Development Programme (www.undp.org).

 

Periodicity of measurement

Household budget or income surveys are undertaken at different intervals in different countries. In developing countries they typically take place every three to five years.

 

PPP surveys are conducted at infrequent intervals. The last price survey through the International Comparisons Program was completed in 1996, and the next will begin in 2003. It is, however, possible to extrapolate from PPP surveys, and the World Bank conversion factors are calculated in this way.

 

Gender issues

Households headed by women tend to have lower incomes and are therefore more likely to have incomes per person lower than $1. However, this relationship should be carefully studied to take into account national circumstances and the definition of head of household adopted in data collection, which is not necessarily related to the chief source of economic support. Whether households are headed by women or men, gender relations affect intrahousehold resource allocation and use. It is not possible to estimate gender-disaggregated poverty rates from available data.

 

Disaggregation issues

It is sometimes possible to disaggregate this indicator by urban-rural location. It is not possible to disaggregate this indicator by gender.

 

International data comparisons

This indicator is used only for international comparison.

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/data).

Human Development Report, annual, United Nations Development Programme (www.undp.org).

 

Comments and limitations

The $1 a day poverty measure is used to assess and monitor poverty at the global level, but like other indicators it is not equally relevant in all regions because countries have different definitions of poverty. Measurements of poverty in countries are generally based on national poverty lines.

 

PPP exchange rates are used because they take into account the local prices of goods and services that are not traded internationally. Although PPP rates were designed for comparing aggregates from national accounts, they may not fully reflect the comparative cost of goods typically consumed by the very poor.

 

There are also problems in comparing poverty measures within countries, especially for urban-rural differences. The cost of living is typically higher in urban than in rural areas, so the urban monetary poverty line should be higher than the rural monetary poverty line. But it is not always clear that the difference between the two poverty lines found in practice properly reflects the difference in the cost of living.

 

There is an unresolved issue about whether to use income or consumption as a welfare indicator. Income is generally more difficult to measure accurately, and consumption accords better with the idea of the standard of living than income, which can vary over time even if the standard of living does not. But consumption data are not always available, and when they are not there is little choice but to use income.

 

There is also a problem with comparability across surveys: household survey questionnaires can differ widely, and even similar surveys may not be strictly comparable because of difference in quality.

 

Even if surveys are entirely accurate, the measure of poverty can miss some important aspects of individual welfare. First, using household consumption ignores inequalities within households. Second, the measure does not reflect people’s feeling about relative deprivation or their concerns about uninsured risk to their income and health.

 

Comparisons across countries at different levels of development may also pose a problem, because of differences in the relative importance of consumption of non-market goods.

 

Agency

World Bank.

 


1b. Poverty headcount ratio (% of population below the national poverty line)

 

Definition

The poverty headcount ratio is the proportion of the national population whose incomes are below the official threshold (or thresholds) set by the national government. National poverty lines are usually set for households of various compositions to allow for different family sizes. Where there are no official poverty lines, they may be defined as the level of income required to have only sufficient food or food plus other necessities for survival.

 

Goal/target addressed

Goal 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger.

Target 1. Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day.

 

Rationale

The indicator allows for monitoring the proportion of the national population that is considered poor by a national standard. Most poverty analysis work for countries is based on national poverty lines. National poverty lines tend to increase in purchasing power with the average level of income of a country.

 

Method of computation

Household income (or consumption) and its distribution are estimated from household surveys (see indicator 1a). The incomes of various household types, by composition, may then be compared with the poverty lines for those types of household. If the poverty lines are expressed in terms of income per adult equivalent or some similar measure, the incomes of the households must be measured on a similar basis. Household income may be converted to income per adult equivalent by using the modified equivalence scale of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)—in which the first household member over 16 equals 1, all others over 16 equal 0.5, all under 16 equal 0.3—or some other equivalence scale. Household incomes are then divided by the “equivalized” number of people in the household (two adults would equal 1.5 according to the OECD scale) to establish income per person.

 

Once the number of households that are below the poverty line has been estimated, the number of people in those households is aggregated to estimate the percentage of the population below the line.

 

Data collection and source

Data on household income, consumption and expenditure, including income in kind, are generally collected through household budget surveys or other surveys covering income and expenditure.

 

National statistical offices, sometimes in conjunction with other national or international agencies, usually undertake such surveys.

 

References

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank, notes to table 2.6, www.worldbank.org/data.

Indicators of Sustainable Development: Guidelines and Methodologies, 2001, United Nations Division for Sustainable Development (www.un.org/esa/sustdev/natlinfo/indicators/isd.htm).

Expert Group on Household Income Statistics: Final Report and Recommendations, 2001 (www.lisproject.org/links/canberra/finalreport.pdf).

Poverty Reduction Strategy Sourcebook, “Poverty measurement and analysis”, World Bank,  (www.worldbank.org/poverty/strategies/sourcons.htm).

Human Development Report, annual, United Nations Development Programme (www.undp.org).

Engendering Statistics: A Tool for Change, 1996, Statistics Sweden.

 

Periodicity of measurement

Household budget or income surveys are undertaken at different intervals in different countries. In developing countries they typically take place every three to five years.

 

Gender issues

Households headed by women tend to have lower incomes and are therefore more likely to have incomes per person below the poverty line. However, this relationship should be carefully studied to take into account national circumstances and the definition of head of household adopted in data collection, which is not necessarily related to being the chief source of economic support. Whether households are headed by women or men, gender relations affect intrahousehold resource allocations and use.

 

Disaggregation issues

Disaggregation of the poverty headcount index is normally limited by the size of the household survey. It is common, however, for indices to be produced for urban and rural areas and for some subnational levels as the sample allows. Estimates at low levels of disaggregation may be made using “poverty mapping” techniques, which use the lower levels of disaggregation available from population censuses, particularly where the timing of the population census and household survey is relatively close. Wherever household surveys provide income or consumption data disaggregated by gender of household heads, these data should be used.

 

International data comparisons

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/data).

Human Development Report, annual, United Nations Development Programme (www.un.org).

 

Comments and limitations

The advantage of this indicator is that it is specific to the country in which the data are collected and where the poverty line is established. While the $1 a day poverty line helps in making international comparisons, national poverty lines are used to make more accurate estimates of poverty consistent with the characteristics and level of development of each country. The disadvantage is that there is no universally agreed poverty line, even in principle, and international comparisons are not feasible.

 

There are also problems in comparing poverty measures within countries, especially for urban and rural differences. The cost of living is typically higher in urban than in rural areas, so the urban monetary poverty line should be higher than the rural monetary poverty line. But it is not always clear that the difference between the two poverty lines found in practice properly reflects the difference in the cost of living.

 

Agencies

National statistical offices.

World Bank.


2. Poverty gap ratio (incidence x depth of poverty)

 

Definition

Poverty gap ratio is the mean distance separating the population from the poverty line (with the non-poor being given a distance of zero), expressed as a percentage of the poverty line.

 

Goal/target addressed

Goal 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger.

Target 1. Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day.

 

Rationale

The indicator measures the “poverty deficit” of the entire population, where the poverty deficit is the per capita amount of resources that would be needed to bring all poor people above the poverty line through perfectly targeted cash transfers.

 

Method of computation

The poverty gap ratio is the sum of the income gap ratios for the population below the poverty line, divided by the total population, which can be expressed as follows:

 

 

where z is the poverty line, yi is the income of individual i, q is the number of poor people and n is the size of the population. The poverty gap can also be expressed (and thus calculated) as the product of the average income gap ratio of poor people and the headcount ratio, that is,

 

 

where

 

,

 

where

 

 

All these formulas are calculated based on data on individuals (yi as individual income or consumption). If household-level data are used, the formulas have to be adjusted by the weight wi, which is the household size times sampling expansion factor for every household i.

 

Data collection and source

When based on the $1 a day poverty line, this indicator is calculated by the World Bank. When based on national poverty lines, the indicator is commonly calculated by national agencies.

 

The data required are the same as those for indicator 1.

 

References

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/data).

Poverty Reduction Strategy Sourcebook, “Poverty measurement and analysis”, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/poverty/strategies/sourcons.htm).

 

Periodicity of measurement

Household budget or income surveys are undertaken at different intervals in different countries. In developing countries, they typically take place every three to five years.

 

Gender issues

Households headed by women may be concentrated in the poorer deciles. However, this relationship should be carefully studied to take into account national circumstances and the definition of head of household adopted in data collection, which is not necessarily related to being the chief source of economic support. Whether households are headed by women or men, gender relations affect intrahousehold resource allocation and use.

 

International data comparisons

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/data).

 

Comments and limitations

The comments under indicator 1a and 1b also apply here.

 

This measure can also be used for non-monetary indicators, provided that the measure of the distance is meaningful. For example, the poverty gap in education could be the number of years of education missing to reach the defined threshold.

 

Agencies

National statistical offices.

World Bank.

 

 


3. Share of poorest quintile in national consumption

 

Definition

Share of the poorest quintile in national consumption is the income that accrues to the poorest fifth of the population.

 

Goal/target addressed

Goal 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger.

Target 1. Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day.

 

Rationale

The indicator provides information about the distribution of consumption or income of the poorest fifth of the population. Because the consumption of the poorest fifth is expressed as a percentage of total household consumption (or income), this indicator is a “relative inequality” measure. Therefore, while the absolute consumption of the poorest fifth may increase, its share of total consumption may remain the same (if the total goes up by the same proportion), decline (if the total goes up by a larger proportion) or increase (if the total goes up by a smaller proportion).

 

Method of computation

Household income and its distributions are estimated from household surveys. Household income is adjusted for household size to provide a more consistent measure of per capita income for consumption. Household income is divided by the number of people in the household to establish income per person. The population is then ranked by income. The income of the bottom fifth is expressed as a percentage of aggregate household income. The calculations are made in local currency, without adjustment for price changes or exchange rates or for spatial differences in cost of living within countries, because the data needed for such calculations are generally unavailable.

 

Data collection and source

For international purposes, this indicator is calculated by the World Bank, but it may also be calculated by national agencies. The World Bank Group’s Development Research Group produces the indicator based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments.

 

Data on household income or consumption come from household surveys. Because underlying household surveys differ across countries in methods and type of data collected, the World Bank tries to produce comparable data for international comparisons and for analysis at the aggregated level (regional or global). Survey data provide either per capita income or consumption. Whenever possible, consumption data are used rather than income data. Where the original household survey data are not available, shares are estimated from the best available grouped data.

 

References

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/data).

Indicators of Sustainable Development: Guidelines and Methodologies, 2001, United Nations Division for Sustainable Development (www.un.org/esa/sustdev/natlinfo/indicators/isd.htm).

 “What Can New Survey Data Tell Us about the Recent Change in Living Standards in Developing and Transitional Economies?” 1996, Martin Ravallion and Shaohua Chen, World Bank Policy Research Department.

 

Periodicity of measurement

Household budget or income surveys are undertaken at different intervals in different countries. In developing countries, they typically take place every three to five years.

 

Gender issues

Households headed by women may be concentrated in the bottom fifth. However, this relationship should be carefully studied to take into account national circumstances and the definition of head of household adopted in data collection, which is not necessarily related to the chief source of economic support. Whether households are headed by women or men, gender relations affect intrahousehold resource allocation and use.

 

International data comparisons

Because the underlying household surveys differ in method and type of data collected, the distribution indicators are not easily comparable across countries. These problems are diminishing as survey methods improve and become more standardized, but achieving strict comparability is still impossible (see “Comments and limitations” for indicator 1a).

 

Comments and limitations

Two sources of non-comparability should be noted. First, the surveys can differ in many respects, including whether they use income or consumption as the indicator of living standards. The distribution of income is typically more unequal than the distribution of consumption. In addition, the definitions of income usually differ among surveys. Consumption is normally a better welfare indicator, particularly in developing countries (see “Comments and limitations” for indicator 1a).

 

Second, households differ in size (number of members), extent of income sharing among members, age of members and consumption needs. Differences among countries in these respects may bias comparisons of distribution.

 

The percentile chosen here is the bottom fifth (quintile). The proportionate share of national household income of this group may go up while the proportionate share of some other percentile, such as the bottom tenth (decile), may go down, and vice versa.

 

Agencies

National statistical offices.

World Bank.


4. Prevalence of underweight children under five years of age

 

Definition

Prevalence of (moderately or severely) underweight children is the percentage of children under five years old whose weight for age is less than minus two standard deviations from the median for the international reference population ages 0–59 months. The international reference population was formulated by the National Center for Health Statistics as a reference for the United States and later adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) for international use (often referred to as the NCHS/WHO reference population).

 

Goal/target addressed

Goal 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger.

Target 2. Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger.

 

Rationale

Child malnutrition, as reflected in body weight, is selected as an indicator for several reasons. Child malnutrition is linked to poverty, low levels of education, and poor access to health services. Malnourishment in children, even moderate, increases their risk of death, inhibits their cognitive development, and affects health status later in life. Sufficient and good quality nutrition is the cornerstone for development, health and survival of current and succeeding generations. Healthy nutrition is particularly important for women during pregnancy and lactation, so that their children set off on sound developmental paths, both physically and mentally. Only when optimal child growth is ensured for the majority of their people will governments be successful in their efforts to accelerate economic development in a sustained way.

 

The under-five underweight prevalence is an internationally recognized public health indicator for monitoring nutritional status and health in populations. Child malnutrition is also monitored more closely than adult malnutrition.

 

Method of computation

The weights of the under-five child population in a country are compared with the weights given in the NCHS/WHO table of child weights for each age group. The percentages of children in each age group whose weights are more than two standard deviations less than the median are then aggregated to form the total percentage of children under five who are underweight.

 

Data collection and source

At the national level, data are generally available from national household surveys, including Demographic and Health Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and national nutrition surveys.

 

For international comparisons and global or regional monitoring, the United Nation’s Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and WHO compile international data series and estimate regional and global figures based on data from national surveys.

 

References

World Health Report, annual, World Health Organization, Nutrition Unit (www.who.org).

The State of the World’s Children, annual, United Nations Children’s Fund (www.unicef.org/publications).

Indicators of Sustainable Development: Guidelines and Methodologies, 2001, United Nations Division for Sustainable Development (www.un.org/esa/sustdev/natlinfo/indicators/isd.htm).

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/data).

The Growth Chart: A Tool for Use in Infant and Child Health Care, 1986, World Health Organization.

Global Database on Child Growth, World Health Organization (www.who.org).

United Nations Children’s Fund, www.childinfo.org and www.unicef.org.

 

Periodicity of measurement

Household surveys are generally conducted every three to five years.

 

Gender issues

The data from national household surveys generally show no significant differences in underweight prevalence between boys and girls. However, these trends should continue to be monitored, particularly at the subnational level and within subgroups of the population.

 

Disaggregation issues

Indicators of malnutrition generally show differentials between rural and urban settings. In some countries, child nutrition may vary across geographical areas, socioeconomic groups or ethnic groups. However, showing and analyzing data on specific ethnic groups may be a sensitive issue in the country. Gender differences may also be more pronounced in some social and ethnic groups.

 

International data comparisons

UNICEF and WHO produce international data sets based on survey data. In some countries, ages may have to be estimated.

 

Comments and limitations

The weight-for-age indicator reflects body mass relative to chronological age and is influenced by both the height of the child (height for age) and weight-for-height. Its composite nature makes interpretation complex. For example, weight for age fails to distinguish between short children of adequate body weight and tall, thin children.

 

Low height for age or stunting, (below minus two standard deviations from the median height for age of the reference population) measures the cumulative deficient growth associated with long-term factors, including chronic insufficient daily protein intake.

 

Low weight for height, or wasting, (below minus two standard deviations from the median weight for height of the reference population) indicates in most cases a recent and severe process of weight loss, often associated with acute starvation or severe disease.

 

When possible, all three indicators should be analysed and presented since they measure and reflect different aspects of child malnutrition.

 

Agencies

Ministries of health.

United Nations Children’s Fund.

World Health Organization.

5. Proportion of the population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption

 

Definition

Proportion of the population below the minimum level of dietary energy consumption is the percentage of the population whose food intake falls below the minimum level of dietary energy requirements. This is also referred to as the prevalence of under-nourishment, which is the percentage of the population that is undernourished.

 

Goal/target addressed

Goal 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger.

Target 2. Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger.

 

Rationale

The indicator measures an important aspect of the food insecurity of a population. Sustainable development demands a concerted effort to reduce poverty, including finding solutions to hunger and malnutrition. Alleviating hunger is a prerequisite for sustainable poverty reduction since under-nourishment seriously affects labour productivity and earning capacity. Malnutrition can be the outcome of a range of circumstances. In order to work, poverty reduction strategies must address food access, availability (physical and economical) and safety.

 

Method of computation

Estimation of the proportion of people with insufficient food (under-nourishment) involves specification of the distribution of dietary energy consumption, considering the total food availability (from national global statistics) and inequality in access to food (from national household surveys). The distribution is assumed to be unimodal and skewed. The log-normal function is used in estimating the proportion of the population below a minimum energy requirement level or cut-off point. The cut-off point is estimated as a population per capita average value, based on dietary energy needed by different age and gender groups and the proportion of the population represented by each age group.

 

The estimates are not normally available in countries. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) prepares these estimates at the national level. These are then aggregated to obtain regional and global estimates.

 

Data collection and source

The main data sources are country statistics on local food production, trade, stocks and non-food uses; food consumption data from national household surveys; country anthropometric data by gender and age and UN country population estimates, total and by gender and age.

 

References

“The State of Food Insecurity in the World”, annual, Food and Agriculture Organization.

Proceedings of the International Scientific Symposium on Measurement and Assessment of Food Deprivation and Undernutrition, “FAO Methodology for Estimating the Prevalence of Undernourishment”, 2002, Food Insecurity and Vulnerability Information and Mapping Systems, Food and Agriculture Organization.

 

Periodicity of measurement

Estimates for the most recent period and for selected benchmark periods (expressed as three-year averages) are reported every year.

 

Gender issues

Intrahousehold access to food may show disparities by gender. Also, cultural patterns of distribution and nutritional taboos may affect women’s nutrition. Women’s higher requirements for iron during pregnancy and breast-feeding may result in iron deficiency anemia, which affects the result of pregnancy and may increase women’s susceptibility to diseases. Although food consumption data do not allow for disaggregation by gender, whenever household survey data are available by gender, efforts should be made to conduct a gender-based analysis.

 

Disaggregation issues

In assessing food insecurity, it is important to consider geographical areas that may be particularly vulnerable (such as areas with a high probability of major variations in production or supply or areas subject to natural disasters) and the population groups whose access to food is precarious or sporadic (structural or economic vulnerability), such as ethnic or social groups. However, showing and analyzing data on specific ethnic groups may be a sensitive issue in the country. Gender differences may also be more pronounced in some social and ethnic groups.

 

Considering the need for disaggregated estimates, the FAO methodology has been expanded for measuring the extent of food deprivation at subnational levels, making appropriate use of available household survey data. To support countries in preparing disaggregated estimates, FAO is conducting capacity building activities for national statistical offices.

 

International data comparisons

The State of Food Security in the World, annual, Food and Agriculture Organization.

 

Comments and limitations

The methods and data used by FAO have implications for the precise meaning and significance of resulting estimates for assessment and policy-making. First, the estimates are based on food acquired by (or available to) the households rather than the actual food intake of individual household members. Second, any inequity in intrahousehold access to food is not taken into account. Third, changes in relative inequality of food distribution through the assessed periods are not considered. However FAO is monitoring any evidence of significant changes over time that would require adjustment to the current estimation procedure.

 

Indicators should not be used in isolation. Monitoring of the hunger reduction target addresses two related problems: food deprivation and child malnutrition. Analysis of food deprivation is based on estimates of the prevalence of undernourishment in the whole population. Analysis of child malnutrition is based on estimates of underweight prevalence in the child population. This is an indicator of nutritional status of individual children (adequate weight for a given age), and the final outcome depends not only on food adequacy but also on other multiple factors such as infections, environmental conditions and care. Therefore, the combined use of both indicators would enhance the understanding of the changes in the food and nutrition situation.

 

Agency

Food and Agriculture Organization.


6. Net enrolment ratio in primary education

 

Definition

Net primary enrolment ratio is the ratio of the number of children of official school age (as defined by the national education system) who are enrolled in primary school to the total population of children of official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music

 

Goal/target addressed

Goal 2. Achieve universal primary education.

Target 3. Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling.

 

Rationale

The indicator is used to monitor progress toward the goal of achieving universal primary education, identified in both the Millennium Development Goals and Education for All initiatives. It shows the proportion of children of primary school age who are enrolled in primary school. Net enrolment refers only to children of official primary school age. (Gross enrolment includes children of any age.) Net enrolment rates below 100 percent provide a measure of the proportion of school age children who are not enrolled in the primary level. This difference does not necessarily indicate the percentage of students who are not enrolled, since some children might be enrolled at other levels of education.

 

Method of computation

The indicator is calculated as the number of enrolled students within the appropriate age cohort according to school records as reported to ministries of education, divided by the number of children of primary school age.

 

Data collection and source

Data on school enrolment are usually recorded by the country ministry of education or compiled from surveys and censuses. Data on the population in the official age group for the primary level are available from national statistical offices, based on population censuses and vital statistics registration. Nationally reported values will be the same as internationally reported values only if the same methods and population estimates are used.

 

For international comparisons and estimates of regional and global aggregates, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics regularly produces data series on school enrolment based on data reported by education ministries or national statistical offices and UN population estimates.

 

For countries for which administrative data are not available, household survey data may be used to assess school attendance rather than enrolment. Among international surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey and Demographic and Health Surveys (and sometimes Living Standards Measurement Surveys and the Core Welfare Indicators Questionnaire Surveys in Africa) provide school attendance data.

 

References

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, www.uis.unesco.org.

Monitoring Progress towards the Goals of the World Summit for Children: End-Decade Multiple Indicator Survey Manual, United Nations Children’s Fund  (www.unicef.org/reseval/methodr.html).

The State of the World’s Children, annual, United Nations Children’s Fund (www.unicef.org/publications).

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/data).

Human Development Report, annual, United Nations Development Programme (www.undp.org).

Gender Checklist: Gender Issues in Basic and Primary Education, Asian Development Bank (www.adb.org).

 

Periodicity of measurement

Enrolment data are recorded regularly by ministries of education and available on a yearly basis. Data derived from surveys and censuses, when administrative records on enrolment by age and gender are not available, are less frequent. Net enrolment rates produced by UNESCO are available on an annual basis for two-thirds of countries, but usually one year after the reference year. The United Nations Population Division estimates population by individual years of age biannually, although estimates may be based on population censuses conducted every 10 years. Household survey data, such as those from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey and Demographic and Health Surveys, are available for many developing countries at regular intervals of three to five years.

 

Gender issues

In situations of limited resources, families make difficult choices about sending their children to school. They may perceive the value of education differently for boys and girls. Girls are more likely than boys to suffer from limited access to education, especially in rural areas. But where basic education is widely accepted and overall enrolment is high, girls tend to equal or outnumber boys at primary and secondary levels.

 

Disaggregation issues

Rural and urban differences are particularly important in the analysis of enrolment data, because of significant differences in school facilities, available resources, demand on children’s time for work and drop-out patterns. It is also important to consider disaggregation by geographical areas and social or ethnic groups. However, showing and analyzing data on specific ethnic groups may be a sensitive issue in the country. Gender differences may also be more pronounced in some social and ethnic groups.

 

International data comparisons

UNESCO data since 1998 follow the 1997 version of the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED97), which enables international comparability between countries. The time series data before 1998 are not consistent with data for 1998 and after.

 

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, www.uis.unesco.org.

The State of the World’s Children, annual, United Nations Children’s Fund (www.unicef.org/publications).

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/data).

Human Development Report, annual, United Nations Development Programme (www.undp.org).

 

Comments and limitations

School enrolments may be over-reported for various reasons. Survey data may not reflect actual rates of attendance or dropout during the school year. Administrators may report exaggerated enrolments, especially if there is a financial incentive to do so. Children who repeat years may mistakenly be included in the net figures. Children’s ages may be inaccurately estimated or misstated. Census data maybe out of date or unreliable. There may also be insufficient data on school enrolment by gender, but existing measurement problems make it difficult to correctly assess the situation.

 

The indicator attempts to capture the education system’s coverage and efficiency, but it does not solve the problem completely. Some children fall outside the official school age because of late or early entry rather than because of grade repetition.

 

Enrolment data compiled by UNESCO are adjusted to be consistent with ISCED97 and are therefore comparable across countries. National data derived from administrative records are not necessarily based on the same classification over time and may not be comparable with data for other countries, unless exactly the same classification is used. Similarly, the concepts and terms in household surveys and censuses do not necessarily remain constant over time.

 

Agencies

Ministries of education.

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Institute for Statistics.


7a. Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach grade 5

 

Definition

The proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach grade 5, known as the survival rate to grade 5, is the percentage of a cohort of pupils enrolled in grade 1 of the primary level of education in a given school year who are expected to reach grade 5.

 

Goal/target addressed

Goal 2. Achieve universal primary education.

Target 3. Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling.

 

Rationale

The indicator measures an education system’s success in retaining students from one grade to the next as well as its internal efficiency. Various factors account for poor performance on this indicator, including low quality of schooling, discouragement over poor performance and the direct and indirect costs of schooling. Students’ progress to higher grades may also be limited by the availability of teachers, classrooms and educational materials.

 

Method of computation

The indicator is typically estimated from data on enrolment and repetition by grade for two consecutive years, in a procedure called the reconstructed cohort method. This method makes three assumptions: drop-outs never return to school; promotion, repetition and drop-out rates remain constant over the entire period in which the cohort is enrolled in school; and the same rates apply to all pupils enrolled in a given grade, regardless of whether they previously repeated a grade.

 

The calculation is made by dividing the total number of pupils belonging to a school cohort who reach each successive grade of the specified level of education by the number of pupils in the school cohort (in this case students originally enrolled in grade 1 of primary education) and multiplying the result by 100. A description of the method is given at http://www.uis.unesco.org.

 

When estimated from household survey data the proportion is estimated as the product of the proportions of transition for each grade up to grade 5. The estimation follows the method of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). A description of the method is given at http://www.childinfo.org.

 

Data collection and source

The indicator proposed by the UNESCO Institute for Statistics is based on grade-specific enrolment data for two successive years for a country and on grade repeater data.

 

Household survey data are obtained from Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and Demographic and Health Surveys in a standard way and include information on current and last year school grade and level of attendance.

 

References

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Institute for Statistics, www.uis.unesco.org.

World Education Indicators (CD-ROM), United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

Education for All: Year 2000 Assessment, “Technical Guidelines”, 1998, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (www.unescobkk.org/infores/efa2000/tech2.htm).

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/data).

Monitoring Progress towards the Goals of the World Summit for Children: End-Decade Multiple Indicator Survey Manual, United Nations Children’s Fund (www.unicef.org/reseval/methodr.html).

The State of the World’s Children, annual, United Nations Children’s Fund (www.unicef.org/publications).

Human Development Report, annual, United Nations Development Programme (www.undp.org).

Indicators of Sustainable Development: Guidelines and Methodologies, 2001, United Nations Division for Sustainable Development (www.un.org/esa/sustdev/natlinfo/indicators/isd.htm).

 

Periodicity of measurement

Where the data are available, they are published annually about two years after the reference year. Household surveys, such as Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and Demographic and Health Surveys, are generally conducted every three to five years.

 

Gender issues

Frequency and drop-out patterns vary between girls and boys. Reasons for leaving school also differ for girls and boys, and by age. Families’ demand on children’s time to help in household-based work is an important factor and is often greater for girls. Also important for girls are security and proximity of school facilities and the availability of adequate sanitation and other services in schools.

 

Disaggregation issues

Rural and urban differences are particularly important in the analysis of education data, because of significant differences in school facilities, available resources, demand on children’s time for work and drop-out patterns. It is also important to consider disaggregation by geographical area and social or ethnic groups. However, showing and analyzing data on specific ethnic groups may be a sensitive issue in the country. Gender differences may also be more pronounced in some social and ethnic groups.

 

International data comparisons

Comparable survival rates are produced by UNESCO for about 40 percent of countries based on data from national administrative records. The number of countries reporting data for this indicator has increased over time in part because of recent inclusion of estimates obtained from household surveys such as Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and Demographic and Health Surveys.

 

Comments and limitations

The method of computation has limits in measuring the degree to which school entrants survive through primary education because flows caused by new entrants, re-entrants, grade skipping, migration or transfers during the school year are not considered.

 

Wherever possible, the indicator should be complemented by grade 1 intake rate, because together the indicators give a much better sense of the proportion of children in the population who complete primary education.

 

Agencies

Ministries of education.

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Institute for Statistics.


7b. Primary completion rate

 

Definition

Primary completion rate is the ratio of the total number of students successfully completing (or graduating from) the last year of primary school in a given year to the total number of children of official graduation age in the population.

 

Goal/target addressed

Goal 2. Achieve universal primary education.

Target 3. Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling.

 

Rationale

The indicator, which monitors education system coverage and student progression, is intended to measure human capital formation and school system quality and efficiency.

 

The indicator focuses on the share of children who ever complete the cycle; it is not a measure of “on-time” primary completion. Various factors may lead to poor performance on this indicator, including low quality of schooling, discouragement over poor performance and the direct and indirect costs of schooling. Students’ progress to higher grades may also be limited by the availability of teachers, classrooms and educational materials.

 

Method of computation

The numerator may include overage children who have repeated one or more grades of primary school but are now graduating successfully. For countries where the number of primary graduates is not reported, a proxy primary completion rate is calculated as the ratio of the total number of students in the final year of primary school, minus the number of students who repeat the grade in a typical year, to the total number of children of official graduation age in the population.

 

Data collection and source

The indicator is compiled by staff in the Education Group of the World Bank’s Human Development Network based on two basic data sources used to compute gross and net enrolment ratios: enrolment data from national ministries of education and population data from the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics. The World Bank and the Institute for Statistics are committed to monitoring this indicator annually in the future.

 

References

World Bank, www.developmentgoals.org/education.

 

Periodicity of measurement

Annual.

 

Gender issues

More understanding is needed on the patterns of completion by gender.

 

Disaggregation issues

Rural and urban differences are particularly important in the analysis of education data because of significant differences in school facilities, available resources, demand on children’s time for work and drop-out patterns. It is also important to consider disaggregation by geographical area and social or ethnic groups. However, showing and analyzing data on specific ethnic groups may be a sensitive issue in the country. Gender differences may also be more pronounced in some social and ethnic groups.

 

International data comparisons

See “Comments and limitations”.

 

Comments and limitations

The indicator reflects the primary school cycle as nationally defined according to the International Standard Classification of Education, as is the case for gross and net enrolment ratios.

 

While the World Bank and UNESCO’s Institute for Statistics are committed to monitoring this indicator annually, systems for collecting and standardizing the data from 155 developing countries are not yet in place. As a result, the current database has many gaps, particularly for small countries, earlier years and gender breakdowns, and obvious anomalies and estimates that are suspect. The current database is a mixture of enrolment data and data based on different systems of graduation (exams, diplomas, automatic promotion), limiting international comparability.

 

The indicator captures the final output of the primary education system, and so responses to policy changes will register only with time.

 

The age-specific estimates are less reliable than overall population estimates, and this is particularly an issue in countries with relatively rapid changes in population and its age and gender distribution from such causes as internal and international migration, civil unrest and displacement. When age-specific population breakdowns are not available, the primary completion rate cannot be estimated.

 

Primary completion rates based on primary enrolment have an upward bias, since they do not capture drop-out during the final grade. This implies that once the data on actual graduates become available for a country, the completion rate of the country would appear to decline.

 

Agencies

Ministries of education.

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Institute for Statistics.

World Bank.


8. Literacy rate of 15–24 year-olds

 

Definition

Literacy rate of 15–24 year-olds, or the youth literacy rate, is the percentage of the population ages 15–24 years-old who can both read and write with understanding a short simple statement on everyday life. The definition of literacy sometimes extends to basic arithmetic and other life skills.

 

Goal/target addressed

Goal 2. Achieve universal primary education.

Target 3. Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling.

 

Rationale

The youth literacy rate reflects the outcomes of primary education over the previous 10 years or so.  As a measure of the effectiveness of the primary education system, it is often seen as a proxy measure of social progress and economic achievement. The literacy rate for this analysis is simply the complement of the illiteracy rate. It is not a measure of the quality and adequacy of the literacy level needed for individuals to function in a society. Reasons for failing to achieve the literacy standard may include low quality of schooling, difficulties in attending school or dropping out before reaching grade 5.

 

Method of computation

The usual method of computation is to divide the number of people ages 15–24 who are literate by the total population in the same age group and to multiply the total by 100. Since literacy data are not always available for all countries and all censuses, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics uses modeling techniques to produce annual estimates based on literacy information obtained from national censuses and surveys.

 

Data collection and source

Literacy data may be derived from population censuses, household surveys and literacy surveys, and total population is derived from national censuses or sample surveys. However, not all censuses or surveys include specific questions for assessing literacy. In some countries where literacy questions are not included, a person’s educational attainment (years of schooling completed) is used to assess literacy status. A common practice is to consider those with no schooling as illiterate and those who have attended grade 5 of primary school as literate.

 

Many household surveys, including the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, Demographic and Health Surveys, Core Welfare Indicators Questionnaire Surveys in Africa and Living Standards Measurement Studies, collect literacy data, which can provide complementary data for countries without a recent census. However, definitions are not necessarily standardized (see “Comments and limitations”).

 

Most of the available data on literacy are based on reported literacy rather than on tested literacy and in some cases are derived from other proxy information.

 

References

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Institute for Statistics, www.uis.unesco.org.

The State of the World’s Children, annual, United Nations Children’s Fund (www.unicef.org/publications).

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/data).

Human Development Report, annual, United Nations Development Program (www.undp.org).

Indicators of Sustainable Development: Guidelines and Methodologies, 2001, United Nations Division for Sustainable Development (www.un.org/esa/sustdev/natlinfo/indicators/isd.htm).

Education for All: Year 2000 Assessment, “Technical Guidelines”, 1998, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (www.unescobkk.org/infores/efa2000/tech2.htm).

 

Periodicity of measurement

Youth literacy rates may change more quickly than adult literacy rates and therefore need to be measured more often. Since population censuses normally occur only every 10 years, input from more frequently administered labour force and household surveys are used for annual estimates. Data are available for consecutive five-year age cohorts starting at 15–19 years old. Household surveys are generally conducted every three to five years in most developing countries.

 

Gender issues

Higher illiteracy rates for women are the result of lower school enrolment and early drop-outs. Moreover, because women generally have less access to information and training and literacy programmes, estimates based on enrolments may overestimate literacy for girls.

 

Disaggregation issues

Rural and urban differences are particularly important in the analysis of education data because of significant differences in school facilities, available resources, demand on children’s time for work and drop-out patterns. It is also important to consider disaggregation by geographical area and social or ethnic groups. However, showing and analyzing data on specific ethnic groups may be a sensitive issue in the country. Gender differences may also be more pronounced in some social and ethnic groups.

 

International data comparisons

The main international source of data is UNESCO’s international data series of annual and projected estimates based on information from national population censuses and labour force, household and other surveys. The estimates are available for some 130 countries.

 

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Institute for Statistics, www.uis.unesco.org.

The State of the World’s Children, annual, United Nations Children’s Fund (www.unicef.org/publications).

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/data).

Human Development Report, annual, United Nations Development Program (www.undp.org).

Indicators of Sustainable Development: Guidelines and Methodologies, 2001, United Nations Division for Sustainable Development (www.un.org/esa/sustdev/natlinfo/indicators/isd.htm).

Education for All: Year 2000 Assessment,  “Technical Guidelines”, 1998, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (www.unescobkk.org/infores/efa2000/tech2.htm).

 

Comments and limitations

Measurements of literacy can vary from simply asking “Are you literate or not?” to testing to assess literacy skills. In some cases, literacy is measured crudely in population censuses, either through self-declaration or by assuming that people with no schooling are illiterate. This causes difficulty for international comparisons. Comparability over time, even for the same survey, may also be a problem because definitions of literacy used in the surveys are not standardized. The latest UN Principles and Recommendations for Population and Housing Censuses advises countries against adopting a proxy measurement based on educational attainment. It recommends that literacy questions be administered as part of national censuses and household surveys, or as part of a post-census sample enumeration.

 

Shortcomings in the definition of literacy, measurement problems and infrequency of censuses and literacy surveys weaken this indicator as a means of monitoring education outcomes related to the goal of achieving universal primary education.

 

Agencies

Ministries of education.

National statistical offices.

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Institute for Statistics.


9. Ratio of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education

 

Definition

Ratio of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education is the ratio of the number of female students enrolled at primary, secondary and tertiary levels in public and private schools to the number of male students.

 

Goal/target addressed

Goal 3. Promote gender equality and empower women.

Target 4. Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005 and in all levels of education no later than 2015.

 

Rationale

The indicator of equality of educational opportunity, measured in terms of school enrolment, is a measure of both fairness and efficiency. Education is one of the most important aspects of human development. Eliminating gender disparity at all levels of education would help to increase the status and capabilities of women. Female education is also an important determinant of economic development.

 

Method of computation

The indicator is a ratio of the number of enrolled girls to enrolled boys, regardless of ages.

 

Data collection and source

Data on school enrolment are usually recorded by the ministry of education or derived from surveys and censuses. If administrative data are not available, household survey data may be used, although household surveys usually measure self-reported attendance rather than enrolment as reported by schools. Among international surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and Demographic and Health Surveys (and sometimes also Living Standards Measurement Studies and Core Welfare Indicators Questionnaire Surveys in Africa) provide school attendance data.

 

For international comparison and estimation of regional and global aggregates, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics data series on school enrolment can be used. The series is based on data reported by education ministries or national agencies for enrolment.

 

UNESCO produces ratios of girls to boys at country, regional and global levels for use in monitoring the Millennium Development Goals. They are available at the Millennium Indicators Web site (millenniumindicators.org).

 

References

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Institute for Statistics www.uis.unesco.org.

World Education Indicators (CD-ROM), United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

Education for All: Year 2000 Assessment, “Technical Guidelines”, 1998, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. (www.unescobkk.org/infores/efa2000/tech2.htm).

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/data).

Monitoring Progress towards the Goals of the World Summit for Children: End-Decade Multiple Indicator Survey Manual, United Nations Children’s Fund (www.unicef.org/reseval/methodr.html).

The State of the World’s Children, annual, United Nations Children’s Fund (www.unicef.org/publications).

Human Development Report, annual, United Nations Development Programme (www.undp.org).

 

Periodicity of measurement

Where official enrolment data are available, estimates from UNESCO are normally available annually about one years after the reference year. Data from household surveys may be available for selected countries at various intervals.

 

Official data on higher education are not as frequently reported as data on primary and secondary enrolment.

 

Gender issues

In situations of limited resources, families make difficult choices about sending their children to school. They may perceive the value of education differently for boys and girls. Girls are more likely than boys to suffer from limited access to education, especially in rural areas. But where basic education is widely accepted and overall enrolment is high, girls tend to equal or outnumber boys at primary and secondary levels. The pattern is similar in higher education, but with larger differences between the two genders.

 

International data comparisons

UNESCO data collection is based on the International Standard Classification of Education, which allows for international comparability between countries and over time. See also entries under “References”.

 

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Institute for Statistics www.uis.unesco.org.

Education for All: Year 2000 Assessment, “Technical Guidelines”, 1998, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. (www.unescobkk.org/infores/efa2000/tech2.htm).

The State of the World’s Children, annual, United Nations Children’s Fund (www.unicef.org/publications).

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/data).

Human Development Report, annual, United Nations Development Programme (www.undp.org).

 

Comments and limitations

Some 50 countries have no systems of higher education. Private education tends to be under-reported, but international coverage has improved over the last four cycles of the UNESCO Institute for Statistics survey. Household survey data may include higher and private education, but may not be comparable between surveys.

 

The indicator is an imperfect measure of the accessibility of schooling for girls because it does not allow a determination of whether improvements in the ratio reflect increases in girls’ school attendance (desirable) or decreases in boys’ attendance (undesirable). It also does not show whether those enrolled in school complete the relevant education cycles.

 

Another limitation of the indicator is that the ratio reflects the gender structure of the school-age population. When the gender ratio in the school age population deviates significantly from 1, the indicator will not adequately reflect the actual differences between girls’ and boys’ enrolment. This happens in countries where boys outnumber girls at younger ages.

 

A ratio based on net enrolment (indicator 6) or gross enrolment is a better measure for this indicator as it takes into account the population structure of the country.

 

Agencies

Ministries of education.

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Institute for Statistics.

 
10. Ratio of literate women to men 15–24 year olds

 

Definition

The ratio of literate women to men 15–24 years old (Literacy Gender Parity Index) is the ratio of the female literacy rate to the male literacy rate for the age group 15–24.

 

Goal/target addressed

Goal 3. Promote gender equality and empower women.

Target 4. Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005 and in all levels of education no later than 2015.

 

Rationale

The indicator measures progress towards gender equity in literacy and learning opportunities for women in relation to those for men. It also measures a presumed outcome of attending school and a key indicator of empowerment of women in society. Literacy is a fundamental skill to empower women to take control of their lives, to engage directly with authority and to gain access to the wider world of learning.

 

Method of computation

The indicator is derived by dividing the literacy rate of women ages 15–24 by the literacy rate of men ages 15–24.

 

Data collection and source

Literacy data may be derived from population censuses, household surveys and literacy surveys. However, not all censuses or surveys include specific questions for assessing literacy. In some countries where literacy questions are not included, a person’s educational attainment (years of schooling completed) is used to assess literacy status. A common practice is to consider those with no schooling as illiterate and defining those who have attended grade 5 of primary school as literate.

 

Many household surveys, including the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, Demographic and Health Surveys, Core Welfare Indicators Questionnaire Surveys in Africa and Living Standards Measurement Surveys collect literacy data, which can provide complementary data for countries without a recent census. However, definitions are not necessarily standardized (see “Comments and limitations”).

 

References

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Institute for Statistics www.uis.unesco.org.

The State of the World’s Children, annual, United Nations Children’s Fund (www.unicef.org/publications).

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/data).

Education for All: Year 2000 Assessment, “Technical Guidelines”, 1998, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (www.unescobkk.org/infores/efa2000/tech2.htm).

Human Development Report, annual, United Nations Development Programme (www.undp.org).

 

Periodicity of measurement

Since population censuses normally occur every 10 years, input from more frequently administered labour force, household and other surveys are used for annual estimates. Household surveys are generally conducted every three to five years in most developing countries.

 

Gender issues

Higher illiteracy rates for women are the result of lower school enrolment and early drop-outs. Moreover, because women generally have less access to information and training and literacy programmes, estimates based on enrolments may overestimate literacy for girls.

 

International data comparisons

The main source of international data is the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization’s international data series of annual and projected estimates based on information from national population censuses and labour force, household and other surveys. These estimates are available for some 130 countries.

 

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Institute for Statistics www.uis.unesco.org.

The State of the World’s Children, annual, United Nations Children’s Fund (www.unicef.org/publications).

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/data).

Education for All: Year 2000 Assessment, “Technical Guidelines”, 1998, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (www.unescobkk.org/infores/efa2000/tech2.htm).

Human Development Report, annual, United Nations Development Programme (www.undp.org).

 

Comments and limitations

Measurements of literacy can vary from simply asking “Are you literate or not?” to testing to assess literacy skills. In some cases, literacy is measured crudely in population censuses, either through self-declaration or by assuming that people with no schooling are illiterate. This causes difficulty for international comparisons. Comparability over time, even for the same survey, may also be a problem because definitions of literacy used in the surveys are not standardized. The latest UN Principles and Recommendations for Population and Housing Censuses advises countries against adopting a proxy measurement based on educational attainment. It recommends that literacy questions be administered as part of national censuses and household surveys or as part of a post-census sample enumeration.

 

 

Shortcomings in the definition of literacy, measurement problems and infrequency of censuses and literacy surveys weaken this indicator as a means of monitoring education outcomes related to the goal of achieving universal primary education.

 

Agencies

Ministries of education.

National statistical offices.

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Institute for Statistics.


11. Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector

 

Definition

Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector is the share of female workers in the non-agricultural sector expressed as a percentage of total employment in the sector.

 

The non-agricultural sector includes industry and services. Following the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) of All Economic Activities, industry includes mining and quarrying (including oil production), manufacturing, construction, electricity, gas, and water. Services includes wholesale and retail trade; restaurants and hotels; transport, storage and communications; financing, insurance, real estate and business services; and community, social and personal services.

 

Employment refers to people above a certain age who worked, or held a job, during a reference period. Employment data include both full-time and part-time workers whose remuneration is determined on the basis of hours worked or number of items produced and is independent of profits or expectation of profits.

 

Goal/target addressed

Goal 3. Promote gender equality and empower women.

Target 4. Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005 and in all levels of education no later than 2015.

 

Rationale

The indicator measures the degree to which labour markets are open to women in industry and service sectors, which not only affects equal employment opportunity for women but also economic efficiency through flexibility of the labour market and therefore the economy’s ability to adapt to change.

 

A significant global increase over the last decade in women’s share in paid employment in the non-agricultural sector indicates that working women have become more integrated into the monetary economy through participation in the formal and informal sectors. However, labour markets remain strongly segregated. In many countries, productive work under conditions of freedom, equity and human dignity is in short supply, and this disproportionately affects women. Women are much more likely than men to work as contributing family workers, without their own pay, and in the informal sector, although there are large differentials between countries and at regional and national levels, often mirroring the relative importance of agriculture.

 

Method of computation

The total number of women in paid employment in the non-agricultural sector is divided by the total number of people in paid employment in that same sector.

 

Data collection and sources:

Data are obtained from population censuses, labour force surveys, enterprise censuses and surveys, administrative records of social insurance schemes, and official estimates based on results from several of these sources. Enterprise surveys and administrative records are likely to cover only large private and public sector employers, in particular in developing countries. The other sources may cover the whole relevant population.

 

References

International Labour Organization, Bureau of Statistics, www.ilo.org/stat.

Yearbook of Labour Statistics, annual, International Labour Organization (laborsta.ilo.org).

Key Indicators of the Labour Market, International Labour Organization (www.ilo.org/kilm).

United Nations Statistics Division, unstats.un.org/unsd/class.

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/data).

Women’s Participation in the Labour Force: A Methods Test in India for Improving Its Measurement, Women, Work and Development 16, 1988, R. Anker, M.E. Khan, and R.B. Gupta, International Labour Office.

Assessing Women’s Economic Contribution to Development, 1988, International Labour Office.

Engendering Statistics: A Tool for Change, 1996, Statistics Sweden.

 

 

Periodicity of measurement:

Results from population censuses are normally available every 10 years, while estimates based on other sources may be available annually or less frequently in some developing countries.

 

Gender issues

There are large differences between women and men in non-agricultural employment, in particular in developing countries. This is the result of differences between rates of participation in employment for women and men as well as the kind of employment in which they participate. In many regions, women are more likely than men to be engaged in informal sector activities and subsistence or unpaid work in the household.

 

Wage employment in most of Africa and much of Asia and the Pacific is a middle-class, urban phenomenon. Outside of urban areas, most employment is agricultural, often for family subsistence. However, where non-agricultural employment is available, it is more likely to go to male members of the household.

 

As economies develop, the share of women in non-agricultural wage employment becomes increasingly important. A higher share in paid employment could secure for them better income, economic security and well-being. However, this shift is not automatic, nor does it account for differentials in working conditions between men and women. Other variables need to be considered, such as level of education, level of remuneration and wage differentials and the extent to which women and men benefit from labour legislation and social programs. Men more often hold regular and better remunerated jobs, whereas women are frequently in peripheral, insecure, less valued jobs, as home workers, casual workers or part-time or temporary workers.

 

International data comparisons

International data are compiled by the International Labour Organization based on data reported by countries. An increasing number of countries report economic activity according to the ISIC.

See also “Comment and limitations”.

 

Yearbook of Labour Statistics, annual, International Labour Organization (laborsta.ilo.org).

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/data).

 

 

Comments and limitations

Although there are clear international standards for the relevant concepts, countries may use different definitions for employment status, especially for part-time workers, students, members of the armed forces and household or contributing family workers. Also, different sources of data may use different definitions and have different coverage, with limited comparability across countries and over time within the same country. The employment share of the agricultural sector is severely under-reported. Also, studies have shown that employment activity questions on standard censuses tend to grossly underestimate the extent of female employment of any kind.

 

Agencies

Ministries of labour.

National statistical offices.

International Labour Organization.

 

 


12. Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments

 

Definition

The proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments is the number of seats held by women expressed as a percentage of all occupied seats.

 

Goal/target addressed

Goal 3. Promote gender equality and empower women.

Target 4. Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005 and in all levels of education no later than 2015.

 

Rationale

Women’s representation in parliaments is one aspect of women’s opportunities in political and public life, and it is therefore linked to women’s empowerment.

 

Method of computation

The indicator is obtained by dividing the number of parliamentary seats occupied by women by the total number of seats occupied. National parliaments consist of one or two chambers. For international comparisons, generally only the single or lower house is considered in calculating the indicator.

 

Data collection and source

At the national level, the data come from the records of national parliaments. National parliaments also report the total number of parliamentary seats and the number occupied by women and men to the Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU), which regularly compiles international data series and global and regional aggregates.

 

References

Inter-Parliamentary Union, www.ipu.org/wmn-e/world.htm.

www.developmentgoals.org.

Progress of the World’s Women, 2000, United Nations Development Fund for Women (www.unifem.undp.org/progressww/2000).

Human Development Report, annual, United Nations Development Programme (www.undp.org/hdr).

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank, (www.worldbank.org/data).

 

Periodicity of measurement

The data are commonly available from national parliaments and updated after an election. National parliaments also transmit their data to the IPU at least once a year and when the numbers change significantly, such as after an election.

 

Gender issues

Women are under-represented in all decision-making bodies and within political parties, particularly at the higher echelons. Women still face many practical obstacles to the full exercise of their role and political life.

 

International data comparisons

The IPU regularly compiles international data series and global and regional aggregates.

 

Inter-Parliamentary Union, www.ipu.org/wmn-e/world.htm.

Human Development Report, annual, United Nations Development Programme (www.undp.org/hdr).

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank, (www.worldbank.org/data).

 

Comments and limitations

Parliaments vary considerably in their independence and authority, though they generally engage in law making, oversight of government and representation of the electorate. In terms of measuring women’s real political decision-making, this indicator may not be sufficient, because women still face many obstacles in fully and efficiently carrying out their parliamentary mandate. Thus, being a member of parliament, especially in developing countries and emerging democracies, does not guarantee that a woman has the resources, respect or constituency to exercise significant influence.

 

Agencies

National parliaments.

Inter-Parliamentary Union.


13. Under-five mortality rate

 

Definition

The under-five mortality rate is the probability (expressed as a rate per 1,000 live births) of a child born in a specified year dying before reaching the age of five if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

 

Goal/target addressed

Goal 4. Reduce child mortality.

Target 5. Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate.

 

Rationale

The indicator, which relates directly to the target, measures child survival. It also reflects the social, economic and environmental conditions in which children (and others in society) live, including their health care. Because data on the incidences and prevalence of diseases (morbidity data) frequently are unavailable, mortality rates are often used to identify vulnerable populations. The under-five mortality rate captures more than 90 percent of global mortality among children under the age of 18.

 

Method of computation

Age-specific mortality rates are calculated from data on births and deaths in vital statistics registries, censuses and household surveys in developing countries. Estimates based on household surveys data are obtained directly (using birth history, as in Demographic and Health Surveys) or indirectly (Brass method, as in Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys). The data are then summed for children under five, and the results are expressed as a rate per 1,000 live births.

 

Data collection and source

At the national level, the best source of data is a complete vital statistics registration system—one covering at least 90 percent of vital events in the population. Such systems are uncommon in developing countries, so estimates are also obtained from sample surveys or derived by applying direct and indirect estimation techniques to registration, census or survey data. A wide variety of household surveys, including Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and Demographic and Health Surveys, are used in developing countries.

 

Several international agencies produce country estimates based on available national data for purposes of international comparisons and assessment of global and regional trends (see “International data comparison”).

 

References

The State of the World’s Children, annual, United Nations Children’s Fund (www.unicef.org/publications).

Monitoring Progress towards the Goals of the World Summit for Children: End-Decade Multiple Indicator Survey Manual, United Nations Children’s Fund (www.unicef.org/reseval/methodr.html).

World Health Organization, www3.who.int/whosis.

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/data).

Indicators of Sustainable Development: Guidelines and Methodologies, 2001, United Nations Division for Sustainable Development (www.un.org/esa/sustdev/natlinfo/indicators/isd.htm).

Human Development Report, annual, United Nations Development Programme (www.undp.org).

 

Periodicity of measurement

Vital statistics are typically available once a year, but they are unreliable in most developing countries. Household surveys that include questions on births and deaths are generally conducted every three to five years.

 

Gender issues

Under-five mortality rates are higher for boys than for girls in countries without significant parental gender preferences. Under-five mortality better captures the effect of gender discrimination than infant mortality, as nutrition and medical interventions are more important in this age group, while biological differences have a higher impact during the first year of life (see also indicator 14, infant mortality rate). There may be gender-based biases in the reporting of child deaths.

 

Disaggregation issues

Under-five mortality generally shows large disparities across geographical areas and between rural and urban areas. Under-five mortality may also vary across socioeconomic groups. Children in some ethnic groups might also be at higher risk of malnutrition, poorer health and higher mortality. However, showing and analyzing data on specific ethnic groups may be a sensitive issue in the country. Gender differences may also be more pronounced in some social and ethnic groups.

 

International data comparisons

Mortality rates are among the most frequently used indicators to compare levels of socioeconomic development across countries. The United Nations Population Division, the United Nations Children’s Fund and the World Health Organization regularly produce estimates of under-five mortality based on available national data. These data series may differ, however, because of differences in methodologies used to estimate data and differences in reporting periods.

 

 The State of the World’s Children, annual, United Nations Children’s Fund (www.unicef.org/publications).

World Health Organization, www3.who.int/whosis.

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/data).

Human Development Report, annual, United Nations Development Programme (www.undp.org).

 

Comments and limitations

Data on under-five mortality is more complete and more timely than data on adult mortality. The under-five mortality rate is considered to be a more robust estimate than infant mortality rate if the information is drawn from household surveys.

 

In developing countries household surveys are essential to the calculation of this indicator, but there are some limits to their quality. Survey data are subject to recall error, and surveys estimating infant [under-five?] deaths require large samples, because such incidences are uncommon and representative households cannot ordinarily be identified the sampling. Moreover, the frequency of the survey is generally only every three to five years. Therefore, when using household surveys it is important to take sampling errors into account. Also, indirect estimates rely on estimated actuarial (“life”) tables that may be inappropriate for the population concerned.

 

There are also gender-based biases in the reporting of child deaths.

 

Agencies

Ministries of health.

National statistical offices.

United Nations Children’s Fund.

World Health Organization.


 

14. Infant mortality rate

 

Definition

The infant mortality rate is the probability (expressed as a rate per 1,000 live births) of a child born in a specified year dying before reaching the age of one if subject to current age-specific mortality rates. [Please confirm. This is typically defined as the number of infants dying before reaching the age of one year per 1,000 live births in a given year; Method of computation also suggests this definition.]

 

 

Goal/target addressed

Goal 4. Reduce child mortality.

Target 5. Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate.

 

Rationale

Although the target relates specifically to under-five mortality, infant mortality is relevant to the monitoring of the target since it represents an important component of under-five mortality.

 

Infant mortality rates measure child survival. They also reflect the social, economic and environmental conditions in which children (and others in society) live, including their health care. Because data on the incidences and prevalence of diseases (morbidity data) frequently are unavailable, mortality rates are often used to identify vulnerable populations.

 

Method of computation

The indicator is the number of deaths of infants under one year of age in the indicated year per 1,000 live births in the same year.

 

For data from vital statistics registrations (when reliable), the number of live births and deaths in the same year of children under one year old are estimated. The number of deaths is divided by the number of births and the result is multiplied by 1,000.

 

For data from household surveys, infant mortality estimates are obtained directly (using birth history, as in Demographic and Health Surveys) or indirectly (Brass method, as in Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys). When estimated indirectly the under-one mortality estimates must be consistent with the under-five mortality estimates.

 

Data collection and source

The best source of data is a complete vital statistics registration system—one covering at least 90 percent of vital events in the population. Such systems are uncommon in developing countries, so estimates are also obtained from sample surveys or derived by applying direct and indirect estimation techniques to registration, census or survey data. A wide variety of household surveys, including Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and Demographic and Health Surveys, are used in developing countries.

 

References

The State of the World’s Children, annual, United Nations Children’s Fund (www.unicef.org/publications).

World Health Organization, www3.who.int/whosis.

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/data).

Human Development Report, annual, United Nations Development Programme (www.undp.org).

 

Periodicity of measurement

Vital statistics are typically available once a year, but they are unreliable in most developing countries. Household surveys that include questions on births and deaths are usually conducted every three to five years.

 

Gender issues

Girls have a survival advantage over boys during the first year of life, largely based on biological differences. This is especially so during the first month of life when perinatal conditions are most likely to be the cause or a contributing cause of death. While infant mortality is generally higher for boys than for girls, in some countries girls’ biological advantage is outweighed by gender-based discrimination (see also indicator 13, Under-five mortality rate). However, under-five mortality better captures the effect of gender discrimination than infant mortality, as nutrition and medical interventions are more important after age one.

 

Disaggregation issues

Infant mortality generally shows large disparities across geographical areas and between urban and rural areas. Infant mortality may also vary across socioeconomic groups, and this indicator is often used as a general indicator of social distress in populations. Infants in some ethnic groups might also be at higher risk of malnutrition, poorer health and higher mortality. However, showing and analyzing data on specific ethnic groups may be a sensitive issue in the country. Gender differences may also be more pronounced in some social and ethnic groups.

 

International data comparisons

Mortality rates are among the most frequently used indicators to compare levels of socioeconomic development across countries. The United Nations Population Division, the United Nations Children’s Fund and the World Health Organization regularly produce estimates of under-five mortality based on available national data. These data series may differ, however, because of differences in methodologies used to estimate data and differences in reporting periods.

 

The State of the World’s Children, annual, United Nations Children’s Fund (www.unicef.org/publications).

World Health Organization, www3.who.int/whosis.

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/data).

Human Development Report, annual, United Nations Development Programme (www.undp.org).

 

Comments and limitations

The infant mortality rate is considered to be a more robust estimate than the under-five mortality rate if the information is drawn from vital statistics registration.

 

In developing countries, household surveys are essential to the calculation of this indicator, but there are some limits to their quality. Survey data are subject to recall error, and surveys estimating infant deaths require large samples, because such incidences are uncommon and representative households cannot ordinarily be identified for sampling. Moreover, the frequency of the surveys is generally only every three to five years. Therefore, when using household survey estimates, it is important to take sampling errors into account.

 

Agencies   

Ministries of health.

National statistical offices.

United Nations Children’s Fund.

World Health Organization.

 

 


15. Proportion of 1 year-old children immunised against measles

 

Definition

The proportion of 1 year-old children immunised against measles is the percentage of children under one year of age who have received at least one dose of measles vaccine.

 

Goal/target addressed

Goal 4. Reduce child mortality.

Target 5. Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate.

 

Rationale

The indicator provides a measure of the coverage and the quality of child health care system in the country. Immunization is an essential component for reducing under-five mortality. Governments in developing countries usually finance immunization against measles and diphtheria, perussis (whooping cough) and tetanus (DPT) as part of the basic health package. Among these vaccine-preventable diseases of childhood, measles is the leading cause of child mortality. Health and other programmes targeted at these specific causes are one practical means of reducing child mortality.

 

Method of computation

The indicator is estimated as the percentage of children ages 12–23 months who receive at least one dose of measles vaccine either any time before the survey or before the age of 12 months. Estimates of immunization coverage are generally based on two sources of empirical data: administrative data and coverage surveys (see “Data collection and sources”). For estimates based on administrative data, immunization coverage is derived by dividing the total number of vaccinations by the number of children in the target population. For most vaccines, the target population is the national annual number of births or number of surviving infants (this may vary depending on a country’s policies and the specific vaccine). Immunization coverage surveys are frequently used in connection with administrative data.

 

Data collection and source

The two sources available at the national level are reports of vaccinations performed by service providers (administrative data), and household surveys containing information on children’s vaccination history (coverage surveys). The principle types of surveys used as sources of information on immunization coverage are Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) 30 cluster surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and Demographic and Health Surveys. Routine data are compiled by national EPI programme managers.

 

The World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) compile country data series based on both types of data, gathered through the annual WHO–UNICEF Joint Reporting Form on Vaccine Preventable Diseases.

 

References

The State of the World’s Children, annual, United Nations Children’s Fund (www.unicef.org/publications).

United Nations Children’s Fund, www.childinfo.org/eddb/immuni/index.htm and 

            www.unicef.org/health/index.html.

Recommended Standards for Surveillance of Selected Vaccine-Preventable Diseases, 1999, World Health Organization (WHO/EPI/GEN/99012).

World Health Organization, www.who.int/health_topics/measles and www.who.int/vaccines-surveillance.

 

Periodicity of measurement

Administrative data are collected annually. Surveys are generally conducted every three to five years.

 

Gender issues

Immunization programmes are generally free of charge and should not discriminate between boys and girls. However, in some countries of South Central Asia and Northern Africa, girls’ immunization rates are lower than boys’, probably due to cultural rather than economic reasons.

 

International data comparisons

WHO and UNICEF compile country data series based on administrative data and household surveys, gathered through the annual WHO–UNICEF Joint Reporting Form on Vaccine-Preventable Diseases.

 

The State of the World’s Children, annual, United Nations Children’s Fund (www.unicef.org/publications).

World Health Organization, www3.who.int/whosis.

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/data).

Human Development Report, annual, United Nations Development Programme (www.undp.org).

 

Comments and limitations

The first dose of measles vaccine is supposed to be administered to all children at the age of nine months or shortly after. By 2000, most countries were providing a “second opportunity” for measles vaccination, either through a two-dose routine schedule or through a combined routine schedule and supplementary campaigns. Measles immunization coverage is expressed as the percentage of children who have received at least one dose.

 

Vaccination coverage for measles needs to be above 90 percent to stop transmission of the virus—not only because measles is so contagious, but also because up to 15 percent of children vaccinated at nine months fail to develop immunity. Some countries in the Latin America and Caribbean region, for example, administer the measles vaccine at 12–15 months of age. This has to be taken into account in calculations of coverage based on household surveys.

 

In many developing countries, lack of precise information on the size of the cohort of children under one year of age makes immunization coverage difficult to estimate.

 

Agencies   

Ministries of health.

United Nations Children’s Fund.

World Health Organization.

 

 

 


16. Maternal mortality ratio 

 

Definition

The maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die from any cause related to or aggravated by pregnancy or its management (excluding accidental or incidental causes) during pregnancy and childbirth or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, per 100,000 live births. The 10th revision of the International Classification of Diseases makes provision for including late maternal deaths occurring between six weeks and one year after childbirth.

 

Goal/target addressed

Goal 5. Improve maternal health.

Target 6. Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio.

 

Rationale

The indicator, which is directly related to the target, monitors deaths related to pregnancy. Such deaths are affected by various factors, including general health status, education and services during pregnancy and childbirth. It is important to monitor changes in health conditions related to sex and reproduction.

 

Method of computation

The maternal mortality ratio can be calculated by dividing recorded (or estimated) maternal deaths by total recorded (or estimated) live births in the same period and multiplying by 100,000. The indicator can be calculated directly from data collected through vital statistics registrations, household surveys or hospital studies. However, these all have data quality problems (see “Data collection and sources”). Alternative methods include a review of all deaths of women of reproductive age (so-called Reproductive Age Mortality Surveys, or RAMOS), longitudinal studies of pregnant women and repeated household studies. All these methods, however, still rely on accurate reporting of deaths of pregnant women and of the cause of death, something that is difficult to obtain in reality.

 

Another problem is the need for large sample sizes, which raises costs. This can be overcome by using sisterhood methods. The indirect sisterhood method asks respondents four simple questions about how many of their sisters reached adulthood, how many have died and whether those who died were pregnant around the time of death. However, the reference period of the estimate is at least 10–12 years before the survey. The direct sisterhood method used in Demographic and Health Surveys also asks respondents to provide the date of death, which permits the calculation of more recent estimates, but even then the reference period tends to center on 0–6 years before the survey.

 

Maternal deaths should be divided into two groups. Direct obstetric deaths result from obstetric complications of the pregnant state (pregnancy, labour and puerperium); from interventions, omissions or incorrect treatment; or from a chain of events resulting from any of these. Indirect obstetric deaths result from previously existing disease or disease that developed during pregnancy and that was not directly due to obstetric causes but was aggravated by the physiologic effects of pregnancy. Published maternal mortality ratios should always specify whether the numerator (number of recorded maternal deaths) is the number of recorded direct obstetric deaths or the number of recorded obstetric deaths (direct plus indirect). Maternal deaths from HIV/AIDS and obstetrical tetanus are included in the maternal mortality ratio.

 

Data collection and source

Good vital statistics registration systems are rare in developing countries. Official data are usually obtained from health service records, but few women in rural areas have access to health services. So in developing countries, it is more usual to use survey data. The most common sources of data are the Demographic and Health Surveys and similar household surveys. Available data on levels of maternal mortality are generally significantly underestimated because of problems of misclassification and under-reporting of maternal deaths. The World Health Organization, the United Nation’s Children’s Fund and the United Nations Population Fund have adjusted to existing data to account for these problems and have developed model-based estimates for countries with no reliable national data on maternal mortality. It is these estimates that are usually published in international tables.

 

References

Maternal Mortality in 1995, 2001, World Health Organization, United Nations Children’s Fund and United Nations Population Fund.

The Sisterhood Method for Estimating Maternal Mortality: Guidance Notes for Potential Users, 1997, World Health Organization and United Nation’s Children’s Fund.

Maternal Mortality: A Global Factbook, 1991, World Health Organization.

“Issues in Measuring and Monitoring Maternal Mortality: Implications for Programmes”, Technical and Policy Paper 1, 1998, United Nation’s Population Fund.

The State of the World’s Children, annual, United Nations Children’s Fund (www.unicef.org/publications).

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/data).

Human Development Report, annual, United Nations Development Programme (www.undp.org).

Reduction of Maternal Mortality: A Joint WHO/UNFPA/UNICEF/World Bank Statement, 1999, World Health Organization (www.who.int/reproductive-health).

 

Periodicity of measurement

Every 7–10 years.

 

Gender issues

The low social and economic status of girls and women is a fundamental determinant of maternal mortality in many countries. Low status limits the access of girls and women to education and good nutrition as well as to the economic resources needed to pay for health care or family planning services.

 

International data comparisons

The World Health Organization, the United Nation’s Children’s Fund and the United Nations Population Fund have adjusted to existing data to account for these problems and have developed model-based estimates for countries with no reliable national data on maternal mortality. It is these estimates that are usually published in international tables.

 

The State of the World’s Children, annual, United Nations Children’s Fund (www.unicef.org/publications).

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/data).

Human Development Report, annual, United Nations Development Programme (www.undp.org).

 

Comments and limitations

This indicator is generally of unknown reliability, as are many other cause-specific mortality indicators, because of the difficulty in distinguishing deaths that are genuinely related to pregnancy from deaths that are not. Even in industrialized countries with comprehensive vital statistics registration systems, misclassification and under-reporting of maternal deaths can lead to serious underestimation. Because it is a relatively rare event, huge sample sizes are needed if household surveys are used. Household surveys such as the Demographic and Health Survey attempt to measure maternal mortality by asking respondents about survivorship of sisters. While the sisterhood method reduces sample size requirements, it produces estimates for covering some 6–12 years before the survey, which renders the data problematic for monitoring progress or observing the impact of interventions. In addition, due to the very large confidence limits around the estimates, they are not suitable for assessing trends over time or for making comparisons between countries. As a result, it is recommended that process indicators, such as attendance by skilled health personnel at delivery and use of emergency obstetric care facilities be used to assess progress towards the reduction in maternal mortality.

 

The maternal mortality ratio should not be confused with the maternal mortality rate (whose denominator is the number of women of reproductive age), which measures the likelihood of both becoming pregnant and dying during pregnancy or the puerperium (six weeks after delivery). The maternal mortality ratio (whose denominator is the number of live birth), takes fertility levels (likelihood of becoming pregnant) into consideration.

 

Agencies

Ministries of health.

United Nations Children’s Fund.

World Health Organization.

United Nations Population Fund.


17. Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel

 

Definition

The proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel is the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care and advice to women during pregnancy, labour and the post-partum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

 

Skilled health personnel include only those who are properly trained and who have appropriate equipment and drugs. Traditional birth attendants, even if they have received a short training course, are not to be included.

 

Goal/target addressed

Goal 5. Improve maternal health.

Target 6. Reduce by three-quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio.

 

Rationale

Measuring maternal mortality accurately is notoriously difficult, except where there is comprehensive registration of deaths and causes of death. Several process indicators have been proposed for tracking progress by focusing on professional care during pregnancy and childbirth, particularly for the management of complications. The most widely available indicator is the proportion of women who deliver with the assistance of a medically trained health care provider.

 

Method of computation

The number of births attended by skilled health personnel (doctors, nurses or midwives) is expressed as a percentage of deliveries (or births if those are the only data available) in the same period.

 

Data collection and source

Data are collected through household surveys, in particular Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, as well as other national household surveys.

 

References

“Issues in Measuring and Monitoring Maternal Mortality: Implications for Programmes”, Technical and Policy Paper 1, 1998, United Nation’s Population Fund.

The State of the World’s Children, annual, United Nation’s Children’s Fund (www.unicef.org/publications).

World Health Organization, www3.who.int/whosis.

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/data).

Human Development Report, annual, United Nations Development Programme (www.undp.org).

 

Gender issues

The low social status of women in developing countries limits their access to economic resources and basic education and thus their ability to make decisions related to health and nutrition. Some women are denied access to care when it is needed either because of cultural practices of seclusion or because decision-making is the responsibility of other family members. Lack of access to or use of essential obstetric services is a crucial factor contributing to high maternal mortality.

 

Periodicity of measurement

Household survey data on these indicators are generally available every three to five years.

 

International data comparisons

 The State of the World’s Children, annual, United Nation’s Children’s Fund (www.unicef.org/publications).

World Health Organization, www3.who.int/whosis.

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/data).

Human Development Report, annual, United Nations Development Programme (www.undp.org).

 

 

Comments and limitations

The indicator is a measure of a health system’s ability to provide adequate care for pregnant women. Concerns have been expressed that the term skilled attendant may not adequately capture women’s access to good quality care, particularly when complications arise. Standardization of the definition of skilled health personnel is sometimes difficult because of differences in training of health personnel in different countries. Although efforts have been made to standardize the definitions of doctors, nurses and midwives and auxiliary midwives used in most household surveys, it is probable that many “skilled attendants” would not meet the criteria for a “skilled attendant” as defined by the World Health Organization. Moreover, it is clear that skilled attendants’ ability to provide appropriate care in an emergency depends on the environment in which they work.

 

Agencies   

Ministries of health.

United Nations Children’s Fund.

World Health Organization.

United Nations Population Fund.

18. HIV prevalence among 15–24 year old pregnant women

 

Definition

HIV prevalence among 15–24 year old pregnant women is the percentage of pregnant women ages 15–24 whose blood samples test positive for HIV.

 

Goal/target addressed

Goal 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases.

Target 7. Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS.

 

Rationale

HIV infection leads to AIDS. Without treatment, average survival from the time of infection is about nine years. Access to treatment is uneven, and no vaccine is currently available.

 

About half of all new HIV cases are among people 24 years old or younger. In generalized epidemics (with prevalence consistently at less than 1 percent among pregnant women), the infection rate for pregnant women is similar to the overall rate for the adult population. Therefore, this indicator is a measure of spread of the epidemic. In low-level and concentrated epidemics, HIV prevalence is monitored in groups with high risk behaviour (because prevalence among pregnant women is low).

 

Method of computation

The number of pregnant women whose blood samples test positive for HIV expressed as a percentage of all pregnant women in that age group whose blood is tested.

 

Data collection and source

Data on HIV in pregnant women come from tests on leftover blood samples taken for other reasons during pregnancy. These samples come from selected antenatal clinics during routine sentinel surveillance, chosen to reflect urban, rural and other sociogeographic divisions in a country. HIV prevalence data in groups with high risk behaviour are collected in serosurveys that are part of the surveillance system or in ad hoc prevalence surveys.

 

Only the results of unlinked, anonymous screening of blood taken for other purposes should be used in calculating this indicator of HIV prevalence. Refusal and other forms of participation bias are considerably reduced in unlinked, anonymous HIV testing compared with other forms of testing, such as in programmes that offer counseling and voluntary HIV testing for pregnant women to reduce mother to child transmission.

 

These data are gathered by the World Health Organization and the Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS.

 

References

Monitoring the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS: Guidelines on Construction of Core Indicators, 2002, Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS (www.unaids.org/UNGASS/docs/JC718-CoreIndic_en.pdf).

National AIDS Programmes: A Guide to Monitoring and Evaluation, Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS (www.cpc.unc.edu/measure/guide/guide.html).

Second Generation Surveillance for HIV, 2002, World Health Organization (www.who.int/hiv/pub/surveillance/en).

Report on the Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic, 2002, Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS (www.unaids.org/hivaidsinfo).

The State of the World’s Children, annual, United Nations Children’s Fund (www.unicef.org/publications).

Young People and HIV/AIDS: Opportunity in Crisis, 2002, United Nations Children’s Fund, Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS and World Health Organization

(www.unicef.org/aids/publications.htm).

World Health Organization, www.who.int/hiv/pub/epidemiology/en.

Turning the Tide: CEDAW and the Gender Dimensions of the HIV/AIDS Pandemic, 2001, United Nations Development Fund for Women (www.unifem.undp.org/resources/turningtide).

Gender, HIV and Human Rights: A Training Manual, 2000, United Nations Development Fund for Women (www.unifem.undp.org/resources/hivtraining).

Fact Sheet: Gender and HIV/AIDS, Pan American Health Organization (www.paho.org/english/hdp/hdw/GenderandHIVFactSheetI.pdf).

 

Periodicity of measurement

The data are collated annually in many developing countries.

 

Gender issues

Pregnant women are not chosen for clinical surveillance because of gender issues but because they offer a unique opportunity to monitor HIV/AIDS.

 

Throughout the world, the unequal social status of women places them at higher risk for contracting HIV. Women are at a disadvantage when it comes to access to information about HIV prevention, the ability to negotiate safe sexual encounters and access to treatment for HIV/AIDS once infected. As a result of these inequities and epidemic dynamics, the proportion of women among people living with HIV/AIDS is rising in many regions.

 

Disaggregation issues

Data from surveillance of pregnant women at antenatal care clinics are broken into urban populations and populations living outside major urban areas. In many countries, data from rural areas are rare. The indicator for pregnant women ages 15–24 should be reported as the median for the capital city, for other urban areas and for rural areas.

 

International data comparisons

The State of the World’s Children, annual, United Nations Children’s Fund (www.unicef.org/publications).

United Nations Children’s Fund, www.childinfo.org.

World Health Statistics, annual, World Health Organization (www3.who.int/whosis). [Can’t find this publication. Do you mean World Health Report? www.global-health.gov/worldhealthstatistics.shtml]

 

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/data).

Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS, www.unaids.org/hivaidsinfo.

Human Development Report, annual, United Nations Development Programme (www.undp.org).

 

Comments and limitations

The indicator gives a fairly good idea of relatively recent trends in HIV infection nationwide in countries where the epidemic is generalized. In areas where most HIV infections are confined to subpopulations with high-risk behaviours, trends should be assessed in these populations.

 

In most countries, serosurveillance sites have not been selected as representative samples of the country. Logistical, feasibility and cost issues guide the selection of these sites. Also, in many countries, the sites included in the surveillance system have changed over time, making interpretation of trends more difficult.

 

Agencies   

Ministries of health.

Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS.

World Health Organization.

United Nations Children’s Fund.

United Nations Population Fund.

 

 


19. Condom use rate of the contraceptive prevalence rate

 

Definition

Condom use rate of the contraceptive prevalence rate is the number of women ages 15–49 in marital or consensual unions who are practising contraception by using condoms as a proportion of all of women of the same age group in consensual unions who are practising, or whose sexual partners are practising, any form of contraception.

 

Goal/target addressed

Goal 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases.

Target 7. Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS.

 

Rationale

The condom use rate is used to monitor progress towards halting and reversing the spread of HIV/AIDS, because condoms are the only contraceptive method effective in reducing the spread of HIV. Because the condom use rate is measured only among women in unions, this indicator needs to be supplemented by an indicator on condom use in high-risk situations (see indicator 19a).

 

Method of computation

The number of women ages 15–49 in marital or consensual unions who report that they are using a condom to avoid pregnancy (regardless of whether they are also using additional methods) is divided by the total number of women ages 15–49 in unions who are practicing, or whose sexual partners are practising, contraception.

 

This indicator is not equivalent to condom use prevalence, which is the number of women ages 15–49 in marital or consensual unions who are practising (or whose sexual partners are practising) contraception by using condoms as a percentage of the total number of women of the same age group (and same marital status, if applicable) in the survey. Irrespective of the contraceptive prevalence rate, if 10 percent of those practising contraception use condoms, then the rate for indicator 19 is 10 percent.

 

The definition and method of calculation of this indicator differ when the indicator is used for monitoring contraceptive use only. In that case, the numerator is the number of women ages 15–49 in marital or consensual unions who report that they are using a condom as their main method of contraception.

 

Data collection and source

Contraceptive prevalence data are obtained mainly from household surveys, notably the Demographic and Health Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and contraceptive prevalence surveys. For condom use data, married women are asked whether they have ever heard of condoms and then whether they are currently using condoms to prevent pregnancy.

 

References

The State of the World’s Children, annual, United Nations Children’s Fund (www.unicef.org/publications).

World Health Statistics, annual, World Health Organization (www3.who.int/whosis). [Can’t find this publication. Do you mean World Health Report? www.global-health.gov/worldhealthstatistics.shtml]

 

Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS, www.unaids.org/hivaidsinfo.

United Nations Population Division, www.un.org/esa/population/unpop.htm.

United Nation’s Children’s Fund, www.childinfo.org and www.unicef.org.

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/data).

Demographic and Health Surveys, www.measuredhs.com.

Human Development Report, annual, United Nations Development Programme (www.undp.org).

Indicators of Sustainable Development: Guidelines and Methodologies, 2001, United Nations Division for Sustainable Development (www.un.org/esa/sustdev/natlinfo/indicators/isd.htm).

Gender, HIV and Human Rights: A Training Manual, 2000, United Nations Development Fund for Women (www.unifem.undp.org/resources/hivtraining).

 

Periodicity of measurement

Household surveys, such as Demographic and Health Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and contraceptive prevalence surveys, are generally conducted every three to five years.

 

Gender issues

Statistics on contraception prevalence rates are based primarily on women, mainly because contraception is more easily measured in this way. Further, contraception, or its lack, affects the health and well-being of women more than it does their sexual partners. Similarly, condom use is still at the discretion of male partners, and the female condom is not as widely available. The rising number of women and girls infected by HIV/AIDS indicates that condom use needs further promotion and that women need to be empowered to refuse unprotected sex.

 

Disaggregation issues

Condom use, as it is the case in general for contraceptive use, may vary significantly across socioeconomic groups and regional and geographical areas. It is important that the analysis address specific demographic groups, such as adolescents and unmarried women.

 

International data comparisons

 The State of the World’s Children, annual, United Nations Children’s Fund (www.unicef.org/publications).

World Health Statistics, annual, World Health Organization (www3.who.int/whosis). [Can’t find this publication. Do you mean World Health Report? www.global-health.gov/worldhealthstatistics.shtml]

United Nation’s Children’s Fund, www.childinfo.org and www.unicef.org.

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/data).

Human Development Report, annual, United Nations Development Programme (www.undp.org).

 

Comments and limitations

The indicator does not reflect condom use for the unmarried population and people in groups with high-risk behaviour. Data are generally collected for women in consensual unions and in a particular age range, while the population of concern includes all women of reproductive age, irrespective of marital status.

 

The spread of HIV through sexual relations depends on having unprotected sex with people who also have other partners. Most monogamous relationships are cohabiting, although the reverse is not necessarily true. Partners who do not live together and who have sex only occasionally are most likely to have other partners over the course of a year. These partnerships therefore carry a higher risk of HIV transmission than partnerships that do not link into a wider sexual network. AIDS prevention programmes try to discourage high numbers of partnerships and to encourage mutual monogamy.

 

This indicator, therefore, is not a practical indicator for measuring the prevention of HIV/AIDS. Information should be collected on additional indicators on condom use in high-risk situations (indicator 19a) and on knowledge and misconceptions of HIV/AIDS among 15- 24-year-olds (indicator 19b). Such indicators give a better picture of the proportion of the population that engages in relatively high-risk partnerships and that is therefore more likely to be exposed to the sexual networks within which HIV can circulate.

 

Agencies   

Ministries of health.

Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS.

United Nations Children’s Fund.

United Nations Population Division.

World Health Organization.

United Nations Population Fund.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


19a. Condom use at last high-risk sex

 

Definition

Condom use at last high-risk sex is the percentage of young people ages 15–24 reporting the use of a condom during sexual intercourse with a non-regular sexual partner in the last 12 months.

 

Goal/target addressed

Goal 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases.

Target 7. Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS.

 

Rationale

Consistent use of condoms in nonregular sexual partnerships substantially reduces the risk of sexual HIV transmission. This is especially important for young people, who often experience the highest rates of HIV infection because they have low prior exposure to infection and (typically) relatively high numbers of non-regular sexual partnerships. Consistent condom use with non-regular sexual partners is important even in countries where HIV prevalence is low, because it can prevent the spread of HIV in circumstances where non-regular relationships are common. Condom use is one measure of protection against HIV/AIDS. Equally important are delaying age at first sex, reducing the number of non-regular sexual partners and being faithful to one partner.

 

Method of computation

The number of respondents ages 15–24 who reported having had a non-regular (non-marital and non-cohabiting) sexual partner in the last 12 months and using a condom the last time they had sex with this partner, as a share of the number of respondents ages 15–24 who reported having had a non-regular sexual partner in the last 12 months.

 

Data collection and source

Data on condom use with non-regular sexual partners are available from household surveys (such as Demographic and Health Surveys, Rural Household Surveys and Behavioural Surveillance Surveys) that collect information on sexual behaviour.

 

References

Monitoring the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS: Guidelines on Construction of Core Indicators, 2002, Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS  (www.unaids.org/UNGASS/docs/JC718-CoreIndic_en.pdf).

National AIDS Programmes: A Guide to Monitoring and Evaluation, Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS (www.cpc.unc.edu/measure/guide/guide.html).

 

Periodicity of measurement

Household surveys, such as Demographic and Health Surveys, Rural Household Surveys and Behavioural Surveillance Surveys, are generally conducted every three to five years.

 

Gender issues

Women’s risk of becoming infected with HIV during unprotected sexual intercourse is higher than that of men. And the risk is even higher for younger women. Social and cultural factors may increase women’s vulnerability to HIV infection. For instance, cultural norms related to sexuality often prevent girls from taking active steps to protect themselves.

 

International data comparisons

HIV/AIDS Database, www.measuredhs.com.

The State of the World’s Children, annual, United Nations Children’s Fund (www.unicef.org/publications).

Young People and HIV/AIDS: Opportunity in Crisis, 2002, United Nations Children’s Fund, Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS and World Health Organization

(www.unicef.org/aids/publications.htm).

Epidemiological Fact Sheets, Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS, World Health Organization and United Nations Children’s Fund (www.who.int/emc-hiv/fact_sheets).

 

Comments and limitations

A rise in this indicator is an extremely powerful sign that condom promotion campaigns are having the desired effect among their principle target market. However, condom promotion campaigns aim for consistent use of condoms with non-regular partners rather than simply occasional use.

 

Some surveys have tried to ask directly about consistent use, but the question is subject to recall bias and other biases.

 

The current indicator is therefore considered adequate to address the target since it is assumed that if consistent use rises, use at last high-risk sex will also increase.

 

Agencies

Ministries of health.

United Nations Children’s Fund.

United Nations Population Fund.


19b. Percentage of population aged 15–24 with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS

 

Definition

Percentage of population ages 15–24 with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS is the share of women and men ages 15–24 who correctly identify the two major ways of preventing the sexual transmission of HIV (using condoms and limiting sex to one faithful, uninfected partner), who reject the two most common local misconceptions about HIV transmission and who know that a healthy-looking person can transmit HIV.

 

Goal/target addressed

Goal 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases.

Target 7. Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS.

 

Rationale

The indicator reflects the success of national information, education and communication programmes and other efforts in promoting knowledge of valid HIV prevention methods and reducing misconceptions about the disease. Common local misconceptions can be determined by the context of the country.

 

Method of computation

Since there are not enough surveys to calculate the indicator as defined above, the United Nations Children’s Fund, in collaboration with the Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS and the World Health Organization, has produced two proxy indicators that represent two components of the actual indicator:

 

Percentage of women and men ages 15–24 who know that a person can protect oneself from HIV infection by “consistent use of condom”. The indicator is calculated as the number of respondents ages 15–24 who, in response to prompting, correctly identify consistent use of condoms as a means of protection against HIV infection, as a percentage of the total number of respondents ages 15–24.

 

Percentage of women and men ages 15–24 who know a healthy-looking person can transmit HIV. The indicator is calculated as the number of respondents ages 15–24 who, in response to prompting, correctly note that a person who looks healthy may transmit HIV, as a percentage of the total number of respondents ages 15–24.

 

Data collection and source

Data on knowledge and misconception on HIV/AIDS are collected through household surveys (such as Demographic and Health Surveys, Rural Household Surveys, Behavioural Surveillance Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys).

 

References

Monitoring the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS: Guidelines on Construction of Core Indicators, 2002, Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS  (www.unaids.org/UNGASS/docs/JC718-CoreIndic_en.pdf).

National AIDS Programmes: A Guide to Monitoring and Evaluation, Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS (www.cpc.unc.edu/measure/guide/guide.html).

 

Periodicity of measurement

Household surveys, such as Demographic and Health Surveys, Rural Household Surveys, and Behavioural Surveillance Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, are generally conducted every three to five years.

 

Gender issues

Women’s risk of becoming infected with HIV during unprotected sexual intercourse is higher than that of men. And the risk is even higher for younger women. Social and cultural factors may increase women’s vulnerability to HIV infection. For instance, cultural norms related to sexuality often prevent girls from taking active steps to protect themselves.

 

In many countries, girls are becoming infected and dying younger than boys, for various reasons, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, the region most affected by HIV/AIDS.

 

International data comparisons

HIV/AIDS Database, www.measuredhs.com.

The State of the World’s Children, annual, United Nations Children’s Fund (www.unicef.org/publications).

Young People and HIV/AIDS: Opportunity in Crisis, 2002, United Nations Children’s Fund, Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS and World Health Organization

(www.unicef.org/aids/publications.htm).

Epidemiological Fact Sheets, Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS, World Health Organization and United Nations Children’s Fund (www.who.int/emc-hiv/fact_sheets).

 

Comments and limitations:

See “Methods of computation”.

 

Agency

United Nations Children’s Fund.


19c. Contraceptive prevalence rate

 

Definition

The contraceptive prevalence rate is the percentage of women who are practising, or whose sexual partners are practising, any form of contraception. It is usually reported for women ages 15–49 in marital or consensual unions.

 

Goal/target addressed

Goal 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases.

Target 7. Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS.

 

Rationale

The indicator is useful in tracking progress towards health, gender and poverty goals. It also serves as a proxy measure of access to reproductive health services that are essential for meeting many of the goals, especially the child and maternity mortality and HIV/AIDS goals.

 

Contraceptive methods include condoms, female and male sterilization, injectable and oral hormones, intrauterine devices, diaphragms, spermicides and natural family planning, as well as lactational amenorrhoea (lack of menstruation during breastfeeding) where it is cited as a method. Because, among contraceptive methods, only condoms are effective in preventing HIV infections, specific indicators on condom use are also considered (see indicators 19, 19a and 19b).

 

Method of computation

The number of women ages 15–49 in marital or consensual unions who report that they are practising (or whose sexual partners are practising) contraception is divided by the total number of women ages 15–49 (and same marital status, if applicable) in the survey.

 

Data collection and source

Contraceptive prevalence data are obtained mainly from household surveys, notably the Demographic and Health Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and contraceptive prevalence surveys.

 

References

The State of the World Population, annual, United Nations Population Fund (www.unfpa.org).

The State of the World’s Children, annual, United Nations Children’s Fund (www.unicef.org/publications).

World Health Statistics, annual, World Health Organization (www3.who.int/whosis). [Can’t find this publication. Do you mean World Health Report? www.global-health.gov/worldhealthstatistics.shtml]

United Nations Population Division, www.un.org/esa/population/unpop.htm.

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/data).

Demographic and Health Surveys, www.measuredhs.com.

Human Development Report, annual, United Nations Development Programme (www.undp.org).

Indicators of Sustainable Development: Guidelines and Methodologies, 2001, United Nations Division for Sustainable Development (www.un.org/esa/sustdev/natlinfo/indicators/isd.htm).

Gender, HIV and Human Rights: A Training Manual, 2000, United Nations Development Fund for Women (www.unifem.undp.org/resources/hivtraining).

 

Periodicity of measurement

Household surveys, such as Demographic and Health Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and contraceptive prevalence surveys, are generally conducted every three to five years.

 

Gender issues

Statistics on contraception prevalence rates are based primarily on women, mainly because contraception is more easily measured in this way. Further, contraception, or its lack, affects the health and well-being of women more than it does their sexual partners.

 

Disaggregation issues

Contraceptive use may vary significantly across socioeconomic groups and regional and geographical areas. It is important that the analysis address specific demographic groups, such as adolescents and unmarried women.

 

International data comparisons

United Nations Population Division,  www.un.org/esa/population/publications/contraceptive2001/contraception01.htm.

The State of the World Population, annual, United Nations Population Fund (www.unfpa.org).

World Health Statistics, annual, World Health Organization (www3.who.int/whosis). [Can’t find this publication. Do you mean World Health Report? www.global-health.gov/worldhealthstatistics.shtml]

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/data).

Human Development Report, annual, United Nations Development Programme (www.undp.org).

 

Comments and limitations

Data are generally collected for women in unions and in a particular age range, while the population of concern includes all women of reproductive age, irrespective of marital status.

 

Also, contraceptive methods may include traditional methods that are largely ineffective. It is important, to the extent possible, to at least distinguish between traditional and modern methods.

 

Under-reporting can occur when the interviewer does not mention specific methods such as contraceptive surgical sterilization.

 

Agencies

Ministry of health.

United Nations Population Fund.

United Nations Children’s Fund.

United Nations Population Division.

 

 


20. Ratio of school attendance of orphans to school attendance of non-orphans aged 10–14

 

Definition

Strictly defined, the number of children orphaned by HIV/AIDS is the estimated number of children who have lost their mother, father or both parents to AIDS before age 15. In practice, the impact of the AIDS epidemic on orphans is measured through the ratio of orphans to non-orphans who are in school.

 

Goal/target addressed

Goal 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases.

Target 7. Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS.

 

Rationale

HIV/AIDS is claiming the lives of ever-growing numbers of adults just when they are forming families and bringing up children. As a result, orphan prevalence is rising steadily in many countries, while fewer relatives within the prime adult ages mean that orphaned children face an increasingly uncertain future.

 

Orphanhood is frequently accompanied by prejudice and increased poverty—factors that can further jeopardize children’s well-being. Children and adolescents orphaned by AIDS face decreased access to adequate nutrition, basic health care, housing and clothing. They may turn to survival strategies that increase their vulnerability to HIV. They are likely to drop out of school because of discrimination, emotional distress, inability to pay school fees or the need to care for parents or caretakers infected with HIV or for younger siblings. In Sub-Saharan only 60 percent of orphans (ages 10–14) who lost both parents attend school compared with 71 percent of those with both parents still living. The limited countries with trend data indicate a widening of this gap. It is important, therefore, to monitor the extent to which AIDS support programmes succeed in securing educational opportunities for orphaned children.

 

Method of computation

The current school attendance rate of children ages 10–14 both of whose biological parents have died is divided by the current school attendance rate of children ages 10–14 whose parents are both still alive and who live with at least one biological parent.

 

Data collection and source

Data for this indicator are collected through household surveys (such as Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys)

 

References

Monitoring the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS: Guidelines on Construction of Core Indicators, 2002, Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS  (www.unaids.org/UNGASS/docs/JC718-CoreIndic_en.pdf).

National AIDS Programmes: A Guide to Monitoring and Evaluation, Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS (www.cpc.unc.edu/measure/guide/guide.html).

The State of the World’s Children, annual, United Nations Children’s Fund (www.unicef.org/publications).

Young People and HIV/AIDS: Opportunity in Crisis, 2002, United Nations Children’s Fund, Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS and World Health Organization

(www.unicef.org/aids/publications.htm).

Children on the Brink 2002: A Joint Report on Orphan Estimates and Program Strategies, 2002, United Nations Children’s Fund, Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS and United States Agency for International Development (www.unicef.org/aids/publications.htm).

HIV/AIDS Database, www.measuredhs.com.

 

Periodicity of measurement

Household surveys, such as Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, are generally conducted every three to five years.

 

Gender issues

Boys and girls are both affected. However, girls might be more likely than boys to leave school to care for ill parents and younger siblings.

 

Disaggregation issues

Data should be presented separately for boys and girls.

 

International data comparisons

Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS, www.unaids.org/hivaidsinfo.

The State of the World’s Children, annual, United Nations Children’s Fund (www.unicef.org/publications).

 

Comments and limitations

The indicator is confined to children ages 10–14 for comparability, as age at school entry varies across countries. Household surveys can miss children in unstable households, and orphaned children are disproportionately likely to be in such households.

 

The indicator is not a direct measure of the number of children orphaned by HIV/AIDS, despite the wording. This indicator does not directly distinguish the cause of orphanhood. But it is believed that high proportions of deaths of adults with school-age children in areas of HIV epidemics are likely to be HIV/AIDS related.

 

Agencies  

Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS.

United Nations Children’s Fund.


21. Prevalence and death rates associated with malaria

 

Definition

Prevalence of malaria is the number of cases of malaria per 100,000 people. Death rates associated with malaria are number of deaths caused by malaria per 100,000 people.

 

Goal/target addressed

Goal 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases.

Target 8. Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases.

 

Rationale

The indicator allows highly endemic countries to monitor disease and death from malaria, which have been increasing over the last two decades due to deteriorating health systems, growing drug and insecticide resistance, periodic changes in weather patterns, civil unrest, human migration and population displacement.

 

Method of computation

Where the only prevalence data available are reported through the administration of health services, they are expressed per 100,000 population, using population estimates as the denominator.

 

Where prevalence data on children under five come from household surveys, the data may be reported as percentages of children under five with fever in the last two weeks. The percentage may be multiplied by 1,000 to express the rate per 100,000.

 

The World Health Organization (WHO) also produces model-based estimates of malaria-specific mortality.

 

Data collection and source

Data come from administrative sources, household surveys and vital statistics registrations. Administrative data are derived by health ministries from the administration of health services. Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys collect information on prevalence of fever in the last two weeks for children under five. The surveys also provide data on all causes of under-five mortality.

 

Vital statistics registration systems collect data on cause of death, including deaths caused by malaria. Good quality information requires that death registration be near universal, that the cause of death be reported routinely on the death record and that it be determined by a qualified observer according to the International Classification of Diseases. Such information is not generally available in developing countries but is now compiled by WHO annually for approximately 70 (mainly developed) countries.

 

References

World Health Organization, www3.who.int/whosis.

Roll Back Malaria, www.rbm.who.int.

The State of the World’s Children, annual, United Nations Children’s Fund (www.unicef.org/publications).

Africa Malaria Report, 2003, World Health Organization and United Nations Children’s Fund

Gender and Health, Technical Paper, 1998, World Health Organization (www.who.int/reproductive-health/publications).

 

Periodicity of measurement

Administrative data are, in principle, available annually. Data from surveys are generally available every three to five years.

 

Gender issues

Potential differences between men and women are a function of the interaction between biological factors and gender roles and relations. Biological factors vary between men and women and influence susceptibility and immunity to tropical diseases. Gender roles and relations influence the degree of exposure to the relevant vectors and also to access and control of resources needed to protect women and men from being infected. Women’s immunity is particularly compromised during pregnancy, making pregnant women more likely to become infected and implying differential severity of the consequences. Malaria during pregnancy is an important cause of maternal mortality.

 

Disaggregation issues

All data should be classified by gender, as there could be differential death rates.

 

Rural populations carry the overwhelming burden of disease, so urban and rural disaggregation of the data is important in tracking the progress made in rural areas. Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys data have shown substantial difference by wealth quintiles, and where possible the data should be disaggregated by the wealth index.

 

International data comparisons

World Health Statistics, annual, World Health Organization (www3.who.int/whosis). [Can’t find this publication. Do you mean World Health Report? www.global-health.gov/worldhealthstatistics.shtml]

 

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/data).

Human Development Report, annual, United Nations Development Programme (www.undp.org).

The State of the World’s Children, annual, United Nations Children’s Fund (www.unicef.org/publications).

United Nations Children’s Fund, www.childinfo.org and www.unicef.org.

 

Comments and limitations

Malaria statistics are reported in countries where it is endemic, which includes almost all developing countries. But data reported by ministries are often only a fraction of the number of cases in the population. Many report only laboratory-confirmed cases. In Sub-Saharan Africa, clinically diagnosed cases also tend to be reported.

 

Differences between male and female prevalence and incidence rates are difficult to measure since malaria in women is more likely to be undetected. The fact that health services focus almost exclusively on women’s reproductive function means that opportunities are lost for detection of multiple conditions, including tropical diseases. Moreover, when incidence rates in women and men are similar, there are still significant differences between them in the susceptibility and the impact of tropical diseases.

 

Agencies   

Ministries of health.

United Nations Children’s Fund.

World Health Organization.

 

 

 


22. Proportion of population in malaria risk areas using effective malaria prevention and treatment measures

 

Definition

Malaria prevention is measured as the percentage of children ages 0–59 months sleeping under insecticide-treated bednets. Malaria treatment among children is measured as the proportion of children ages 0–59 months who were ill with the fever in the two weeks before the survey and who received appropriate antimalarial drugs

 

Goal/target addressed

Goal 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases.

Target 8. Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases.

 

Rationale

The Roll Back Malaria initiative, established in late 1998 by the World Health Organization, the United Nations Children’s Fund and the World Bank, identifies four main interventions to reduce the burden of malaria in Africa:

·        Use of insecticide-treated bednets, which have been demonstrated to cut all-cause child mortality over the first two years by 20 percent.

·        Prompt access to effective treatment in or near the home.

·        Provision of anti-malarial drugs to symptom-free pregnant women in high transmission areas.

·        Improved forecasting, prevention and rapid response to malaria epidemics.

 

In areas of Sub-Saharan Africa with high levels of malaria transmission, regular use of an insecticide-treated bednet can reduce mortality in children under-five by as much as 20 percent and has a significant impact on anemia. Similar or greater benefits have been achieved in other regions and for pregnant women. The prevention indicator will allow countries to monitor widespread use of insecticide-treated materials and other appropriate methods to limit human-mosquito contact.

 

Detection of epidemics requires timely, complete surveillance of malaria cases and monitoring of weather patterns. Reserve drug stocks, transport and hospital capacity are needed to mount an appropriate response. In some epidemic zones, well-timed and targeted vector control activities have minimized the impact of epidemics. The treatment indicator allows countries to monitor detection and appropriate response to epidemics within two weeks of onset.

 

Method of computation

For prevention, the indicator is calculated as the percentage of children under five years of age in the survey who slept under an insecticide treated bednet the previous night.

 

Data collection and source

The only data sources are household surveys, mainly Demographic and Health Surveys and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, malaria surveys and malaria modules added to other ongoing household surveys.

 

References

Roll Back Malaria, www.rbm.who.int.

World Health Organization Yearbook, annual, World Health Organization (www3.who.int/whosis).

The State of the World’s Children, annual, United Nations Children’s Fund (www.unicef.org/publications).

United Nations Children’s Fund, www.childinfo.org and www.unicef.org.

Human Development Report, annual, United Nations Development Programme (www.undp.org).

 

Periodicity of measurement

Data on coverage of insecticide-treated bednets and treatment data should be collected about every two to three years.

 

Gender issues

Girls may have greater exposure than boys to malaria-infested areas because of their role in the provision of fuel, water and other supplies.

 

Disaggregation issues

Disparities by gender, age, mother’s education and area of residence should be assessed.

 

International data comparisons

World Health Statistics, annual, World Health Organization (www3.who.int/whosis). [Can’t find this publication. Do you mean World Health Report? www.global-health.gov/worldhealthstatistics.shtml]

 

Human Development Report, annual, United Nations Development Programme (www.undp.org).

The State of the World’s Children, annual, United Nations Children’s Fund (www.unicef.org/publications).

 

Comments and limitations

Survey data are subject to sampling errors and are undertaken only every few years. As the data on bednet use are new, no trend data are yet available.

 

Agencies  

Ministries of health.

United Nations Children’s Fund.

World Health Organization.

 

 


23. Prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis

 

Definition

Tuberculosis prevalence is the number of cases of tuberculosis per 100,000 people. Death rates associated with tuberculosis are deaths caused by tuberculosis per 100,000 people. A tuberculosis case is defined as a patient in whom tuberculosis has been bacteriologically confirmed or diagnosed by a clinician.

 

Goal/target addressed

Goal 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases.

Target 8. Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases.

 

Rationale

Detecting and curing tuberculosis are key interventions for addressing poverty and inequality. Prevalence and deaths are more sensitive markers of the changing burden of tuberculosis than incidence (new cases), although data on trends in incidence are far more comprehensive and give the best overview of the impact of global tuberculosis control.

 

Method of computation

Where the only data available are data reported through the administration of health services, they are expressed per 100,000 population, using population estimates as the denominator.

 

Where the data come from household surveys, prevalence (and more rarely deaths) is expressed per 100,000 population, using the total population in the survey as the denominator.

 

Tuberculosis prevalence is sometimes expressed in absolute numbers of cases, while tuberculosis incidence in a given period (usually one year) is always per 100,000 people.

 

Data collection and source

Direct measures of tuberculosis prevalence are uncommon, and recent population-based surveys have been confined largely to countries in the East Asia and Pacific region. Direct measures of the tuberculosis death rate come from vital statistics registration. Reliable figures require that death registration be nearly universal and that the cause of death be reported routinely on the death record and determined by a qualified observer according to the International Classification of Diseases. Such information is not generally available in developing countries. Vital statistics registration systems tend to underestimate tuberculosis deaths, although time series data from some countries in Asia and the Americas give a useful indication of trends.

 

In the absence of direct measures of prevalence and death rates, a variety of techniques can be used to estimate these values. Administrative data are derived from the administration of health services. Data can also be obtained from household surveys such as Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys or the Demographic and Health Surveys, although these usually refer only to children under five and do not provide death rates. Population data come directly or indirectly from population censuses.

 

References

World Health Organization, www3.who.int/whosis and www.who.int/gtb/dots.

Stop TB Partnership, www.stoptb.org.

Human Development Report, annual, United Nations Development Programme (www.undp.org).

The State of the World’s Children, annual, United Nations Children’s Fund, (www.unicef.org/publications).

United Nations Children’s Fund, www.childinfo.org and www.unicef.org.

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/data).

Gender and Health, Technical paper, 1998, World Health Organization (www.who.int/reproductive-health/publications).

 

Periodicity of Measurement

Administrative data are, in principle, available annually. Data from surveys are generally available every three to five years. Results from population censuses are generally available every 10 years.

 

Gender issues

At younger ages, the prevalence of infection is similar in boys and girls. At older ages, a higher prevalence has been found in men; in most of the world, more men than women are diagnosed with tuberculosis and die from it. However, recent analyses comparing infection and disease rates suggest that the propensity to develop the disease after infection with mycobacterium tuberculosis (the progression rate) may be greater among women of reproductive age than among men of the same age. A recent review of socioeconomic and cultural factors relating to these suggested differences called for further research to clarify such differences in the epidemiology of tuberculosis.

 

Although more men than women die of tuberculosis, it is still a leading cause of death from infectious disease among women. Because tuberculosis affects women mainly in their economically and reproductively active years, the impact of the disease is also strongly felt by their children and families.

 

Disaggregation issues

It is important to compile data by gender and to take a gender perspective in the analysis.

 

International data comparisons

World Health Statistics, annual, World Health Organization (www3.who.int/whosis). [Can’t find this publication. Do you mean World Health Report? www.global-health.gov/worldhealthstatistics.shtml]

Human Development Report, annual, United Nations Development Programme (www.undp.org).

The State of the World’s Children, annual, United Nations Children’s Fund, (www.unicef.org/publications).

United Nations Children’s Fund, www.childinfo.org and www.unicef.org.

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/data).

 

Comments and limitations

Tuberculosis prevalence and death rate data reported by ministries in developing countries are usually only a fraction of the number of cases and deaths from tuberculosis in the population.

 

Agencies   

Ministries of health.

World Health Organization.


24. Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured under directly-observed treatment short courses (DOTS)

 

Definition

The tuberculosis detection rate is the percentage of estimated new infectious tuberculosis cases detected under the directly observed treatment, short course (DOTS) case detection and treatment strategy. The cure rate is the percentage of new, registered smear-positive (infectious) cases that were cured or in which a full course of DOTS was completed. A tuberculosis case is defined as a patient in whom tuberculosis has been bateriologically confirmed or diagnosed by a clinician.

 

Goal/target addressed

Goal 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases.

Target 8. Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases.

 

Rationale

Since tuberculosis is an airborne contagious disease, primary control is effected through finding and treating infectious cases and thus limiting the risk of acquiring infection. The recommended approach to primary control is the DOTS strategy, an inexpensive strategy that could prevent millions of tuberculosis cases and deaths over the coming decade.

 

DOTS is a proven system based on accurate diagnosis and consistent treatment with a full course of a cocktail of anti-tuberculosis drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, streptomycin and ethambutol). DOTS requires government commitment, careful detection, consistent treatment, uninterrupted supply of anti-tuberculosis drugs and a monitoring and reporting system to evaluate treatment outcomes for each patient.

 

Method of computation

The case detection rate is the ratio of smear-positive case notifications in a given year to the estimated number of new smear-positive cases arising in that year. For some countries, there is a margin of uncertainty in the estimation of the denominator of this ratio.

 

The treatment success rates is the ratio of new, registered smear-positive (infectious) cases that were cured or completed a full course of DOTS to the total number of new, registered cases. Treatment success rates can be monitored directly and accurately in cohorts of patients treated under the DOTS strategy. Systematic evaluation of patient progress and treatment outcomes provides the numerator.

 

Data collection and source

Data on both the detection rate and the treatment success rate are derived from World Health Organization DOTS programmes, which monitor and report cases detected, treatment progress and programme performance.

 

References

World Health Organization, www3.who.int/whosis and www.who.int/gtb/dots.

Global Tuberculosis Control 2002: Surveillance, Planning, Finance, 2002, World Health Organization (www.who.int/gtb/publications).

World Health Organization Yearbook, annual, World Health Organization [Can’t find this book. Should it be World Health Report?]

 

Stop TB Partnership, www.stoptb.org.

 

Periodicity of measurement

Administrative data are, in principle, available annually. Household survey are generally available annually. Household surveys are generally available every three to five years. Data from DOTS programmes, though incomplete, are updated frequently.

 

Gender issues

At younger ages, the prevalence of infection is similar in boys and girls. At older ages, a higher prevalence has been found in men; in most of the world, more men than women are diagnosed with tuberculosis and die from it. However, recent analyses comparing infection and disease rates suggest that the propensity to develop the disease after infection with mycobacterium tuberculosis (the progression rate) may be greater among women of reproductive age than among men of the same age. A recent review of socioeconomic and cultural factors relating to these suggested differences called for further research to clarify such differences in the epidemiology of tuberculosis.

 

Tuberculosis is nevertheless a leading cause of death from infectious disease among women. Because tuberculosis affects women mainly in their economically and reproductively active years, the impact of the disease is also strongly felt by their children and families.

 

International data comparisons

World Health Organization, www3.who.int/whosis and www.who.int/gtb/dots.

Stop TB Partnership, www.stoptb.org.

 

Comments and limitations

Tuberculosis cases reported by ministries in developing countries are usually only a fraction of the number of cases in the population. It is estimated that in 2000 only 27 percent of new cases were notified under DOTS and only about 19 percent of cases were successfully treated.

 

Agencies   

Ministries of health.

World Health Organization.


25. Proportion of land area covered by forest

 

Definition

Proportion of land area covered by forest is forest areas as a share of total land area, where land area is the total surface area of the country less the area covered by inland waters, like major rivers and lakes. As defined in the Food and Agricultural Organization’s (FAO) Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000, forest includes both natural forests and forest plantations. It refers to land with an existing or expected tree canopy of more than 10 percent and an area of more than 0.5 hectare where the trees should be able to reach a minimum height of 5 meters. Forests are identified both by the presence of trees and the absence of other land uses. Land from which forest has been cleared but that will be reforested in the foreseeable future is included. Excluded are stands of trees established primarily for agricultural production, such as fruit tree plantations.

 

Goal/target addressed

Goal 7. Ensure environmental sustainability.

Target 9. Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources.

 

Rationale

The indicator provides a measure of the relative importance of a forest in a country. Changes in forest area reflect the demand for land for other competitive uses.

 

Forests provide a number of functions that are vital for humanity, including the provision of goods (timber and non-timber products) and services such as protection against flooding, habitat for biodiversity, carbon sequestration, watershed protection and soil conservation. Large areas of the world’s forests have been converted to other uses or severely degraded. While substantial areas of productive forest remain, there is now widespread recognition that the resource is not infinite and that its wise and sustainable use is needed for humanity’s survival.

 

Method of computation

The proportion of forest in the total land area is calculated from information provided by countries or from satellite images or other remote sensing information analysis. Changes in the proportion should be computed to identify trends.

 

Data collection and source

FAO global forest resources assessments, regional forest resources assessments, special studies and surveys, national forest inventories and satellite images.

 

References

State of the World’s Forests, annual, Food and Agricultural Organization (faostat.fao.org).

Food and Agriculture Organization, faostat.fao.org.

Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000, Food and Agricultural Organization (www.fao.org/forestry/fo/fra).

Forest Resources of Europe, CIS, North America, Australia, Japan and New Zealand, 2000, United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (www.unece.org/trade/timber/fra).

United Nations Environment Programme, www.unep.org.

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/data).

 

Periodicity of measurement

FAO global forest resources assessments are carried out every 5–10 years, incorporating national forest resources variables, which are measured in the national forest inventory process at different intervals (often 5–10 years).

 

Gender issues

Men and women use forest products in different ways. Women typically gather forest products for fuel, fencing, food for the family, fodder for livestock, medicine and raw materials for income-generating activities. Women are also often the chief sources of information on the use and management of trees and other forest plants. Men, on the other hand, tend to use non-wood forest products, but also more often cut wood to sell or use for building materials. Women’s access to forest products may not be ensured—even where women have ownership rights to land.

 

Disaggregation issues

FAO provides a breakdown of forest cover between natural forest and plantation for developing countries only.

 

International data comparisons

Although the FAO forestry-related definitions are clear and applied at the international level, countries have historically used their own definitions in conducting national forest inventories and assessments. Considerable efforts have been made to adjust data based on national definitions to comparable international ones, and FAO’s Global Forest Resources Assessment documents these adjustments.

 

State of the World’s Forests, annual, Food and Agricultural Organization (faostat.fao.org).

Food and Agriculture Organization, faostat.fao.org.

Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000, Food and Agricultural Organization (www.fao.org/forestry/fo/fra).

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/data).

 

Comments and limitations

National forest inventories and forest surveys are irregular in some countries and may be significantly out of date. Because of climatic and geographic differences, forest areas vary in importance among countries, so changes in area covered by forests should be documented as well as area covered by forests. Longer time series may be difficult to compare directly without analysis of differences in definitions, methods and underlying data.

 

The proportion of total forest cover (including both natural forest and plantation) may underestimate the rate at which natural forest is disappearing in some countries.

 

It is also recommended that immediate users or beneficiaries of wooded land be identified.

 

Agencies  

Ministries of environment.

Food and Agricultural Organization.


26. Ratio of area protected to maintain biological diversity to surface area

 

Definition

The ratio of area protected to maintain biological diversity to surface area is defined as nationally protected area as a percentage of total surface area of a country. The generally accepted IUCN–World Conservation Union definition of a protected area is an area of land or sea dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biological diversity and of natural and associated cultural resources and managed through legal or other effective means.

 

Goal/target addressed

Goal 7. Ensure environmental sustainability.

Target 9. Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources.

 

Rationale

Habitat conservation is vital for stemming the decline in biodiversity. The establishment of protected areas is an important mechanism for achieving this aim. Some areas, such as scientific reserves, are maintained in their natural state and closed to extractive use. Others are partially protected and may be used for recreation or tourism.

 

In addition to protecting biodiversity, protected areas have become places of high social and economic value: supporting local livelihoods; protecting watersheds from erosion; harboring an untold wealth of genetic resources; supporting thriving recreation and tourism industries; providing for science, research and education; and forming a basis for cultural and other non-material values. These values continue to grow in importance.

 

Method of computation

Protected areas, both terrestrial and marine, are totaled and expressed as a percentage of the total surface area of the country. The total surface area of the country includes terrestrial area plus any territorial sea area (up to 12 nautical miles).

 

Data collection and source

Data are collected by environment and other ministries responsible for the designation and maintenance of protected areas. Data are stored in the World Database on Protected Areas and can be accessed at http://sea.unep-wcmc.org/wdbpa/UN.cfm.

 

References

IUCN–World Conservation Union, www.iucn.org/themes/biodiversity.

World Database on Protected Areas, United Nations Environment Programme–World Conversation Monitoring Centre (sea.unep-wcmc.org/wdbpa/UN.cfm).

Indicators of Sustainable Development: Guidelines and Methodologies, 2001, United Nations Division for Sustainable Development (www.un.org/esa/sustdev/natlinfo/indicators/isd.htm).

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, biosphere reserves, www.unesco.org/mab.

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, heritage sites, www.unesco.org/whc.

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, wetlands, www.ramsar.org/sitelist.pdf.

Gender and Biodiversity, Tipsheet, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/Development Assistance Committee (www.oecd.org).

 

Periodicity of measurement

Data are constantly updated in the World Database on Protected Areas as new information is received from countries.

 

Gender issues

Mainstream agricultural, environmental and related policies and programmes tend to see farmers as men. They often fail to recognize women’s work, knowledge, contributions and needs. This has important consequences for biodiversity as well as gender equality.

 

International data comparisons

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/data).

World Database on Protected Areas, United Nations Environment Programme–World Conversation Monitoring Centre (sea.unep-wcmc.org/wdbpa/UN.cfm).

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, biosphere reserves, www.unesco.org/mab.

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, heritage sites, www.unesco.org/whc.

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, wetlands, www.ramsar.org/sitelist.pdf.

 

Comments and limitations

The designation of an area as protected is not confirmation that protection measures are actually in force. The indicator provides a measure of governments’ will to protect biodiversity. It does not measure the effectiveness of policy tools in reducing biodiversity loss, which ultimately depends on a range of management and implementation factors not covered by the indicator.

 

The indicator provides no information on areas not designated as protected, but which may also be important for conserving biodiversity.

 

The data also do not include sites protected under local or provincial law (World Conservation Monitoring Center, Protected Areas Data Unit).

 

It is not obvious how to establish targets for this indicator.

 

Agencies   

Ministries of environment.

United Nations Environment Programme, World Conservation Monitoring Centre.

IUCN–World Conservation Union.

 

 


27. Energy use (metric ton oil equivalent) per $1 GDP (PPP)

[Goals table and discussion below use kilograms of oil equivalent and $1,000 GDP, not metric tons and $1 GDP]

 

Definition

Energy use (kilogram oil equivalent) per $1000 GDP (PPP) is commercial energy use measured in units of oil equivalent per $1,000 of GDP converted from national currencies using purchasing power parity (PPP) conversion factors.

 

Goal/target addressed

Goal 7. Ensure environmental sustainability.

Target 9. Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources.

 

Rationale

The indicator provides a measure of energy intensity (it is the inverse of energy efficiency). Differences in this ratio over time and across countries reflect structural changes in the economy, changes in the energy efficiency of particular sectors and differences in fuel mixes. In principle, the lower the ratio, the better the energy efficiency.

 

Method of computation

Total commercial energy consumption is converted to metric ton [or kilograms??] oil equivalence using standard tables. GDP data must be converted using PPP tables so that real output is compared with real energy input. National total GDP is deflated (currently to 1995 US PPP dollars) by reference to PPP tables derived from the International Comparisons Program. Energy input is divided by GDP to derive the ratio.

 

Data collection and source

Energy consumption is calculated from national energy balance sheets. Real GDP comes from the national income accounts deflated by reference to PPP tables prepared by the International Comparisons Program. Traditional fuels, such as animal and vegetable waste, fuel wood and charcoal, are excluded.

 

References

International Energy Agency, www.iea.org.

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/data).

Indicators of Sustainable Development: Guidelines and Methodologies, 2001, United Nations Division for Sustainable Development (www.un.org/esa/sustdev/natlinfo/indicators/isd.htm).

Energy Balances of OECD Countries, annual, International Energy Agency.

Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries, annual, International Energy Agency.

United Nations Statistics Division, unstats.un.org/unsd.

 

Periodicity of measurement

Data are available annually.

 

Disaggregation issues

This is a relatively crude indicator and needs to be broken down by sector of industry to be interpreted.

 

 

International data comparisons

International Energy Agency, www.iea.org.

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/data).

Energy Balances of OECD Countries, annual, International Energy Agency.

Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries, annual, International Energy Agency.

United Nations Statistics Division, unstats.un.org/unsd.

 

Comments and limitations

As the input is commercial energy, it should be compared with the output from that energy, deflated by the PPPs relevant to that output. Changes in the ratio over time are influenced almost as much by changes in the structure of the economy as by changes in sectoral energy intensities.

 

Agencies 

International Energy Agency.

World Bank.

United Nations Statistics Division.


28. Carbon dioxide emissions (per capita) and consumption of ozone-depleting CFCs (ODP tons)

 

Definition

Carbon dioxide emissions per capita is the total amount of carbon dioxide emitted by a country as a consequence of human (production and consumption) activities, divided by the population of the country. In the global carbon dioxide emission estimates of the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the United States, the calculated country emissions of carbon dioxide include emissions from consumption of solid, liquid and gas fuels; cement production; and gas flaring. National reporting to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change that follows the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change guidelines is based on national emission inventories and covers all sources of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions as well as carbon sinks (such as forests).

 

Consumption of ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in tons (ozone-depleting potential) is the sum of the consumption of the weighted tons of the individual substances in the group—metric tons of the individual substance (defined in the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer) multiplied by its ozone-depleting potential. Ozone-depleting substances are any substance containing chlorine or bromine that destroys the stratospheric ozone layer. The stratospheric ozone absorbs most of the biologically damaging ultraviolet radiation.

 

Goal/target addressed

Goal 7. Ensure environmental sustainability.

Target 9. Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources.

 

Rationale

The indicator signifies the commitment to reducing carbon dioxide emissions and progress in phasing out the consumption of CFCs by countries that have ratified the Montreal Protocol. Carbon dioxide emissions are largely a by-product of energy production and use. They account for the largest share of greenhouse gases associated with global warming.

 

The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (1985) and the Montreal Protocol (1987) are now recognized as having been successful in preventing the global environmental catastrophe that could have been caused by stratospheric ozone depletion. The Montreal Protocol aims to reduce and eventually eliminate the emissions of anthropogenic ozone-depleting substances by ceasing their production and consumption. The phasing out of ozone-depleting substances and their replacement with less harmful substances or new processes are aimed at the recovery of the ozone layer.

 

CFCs are considered most representative of the protocol’s efforts towards phasing out the use of ozone-depleting substances because they were the first to be targeted for elimination.

 

Method of computation

Carbon dioxide emissions per capita are calculated by dividing carbon dioxide emissions by the number of people in the national population. The 1950-to-present carbon dioxide emission estimates are derived primarily from energy statistics published by the United Nations, using the methods of “Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fuels: A Procedure for Estimation and Results for 1950–82”. National reporting to the United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change is based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change guidelines. Carbon dioxide emissions can be expressed in carbon dioxide or converted to carbon content.

 

The consumption of CFCs is the national production plus imports, minus exports, minus destroyed quantities, minus feedstock uses of individual CFCs. National annual consumption of CFCs is the sum of the weighted tons (consumption in metric tons multiplied by the estimated ozone-depleting potential) of the individual CFCs.

 

Data collection and source

National carbon dioxide emissions are estimated from detailed data on emission sources, using source-specific emission factors. Emission inventories are usually compiled by energy or environment ministries. Annex I Parties (developed countries) to the United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change submit their data on greenhouse gas emissions to the organization’s secretariat through an annual reporting format. Reporting of Non-Annex I Parties is voluntary and occasional. Where national emission inventories are absent, official sources are supplemented by other sources and estimates.

 

Estimation of the consumption of CFCs requires data on national production plus imports, minus exports, minus stocks destroyed. These can be derived from national production and international trade statistics.

 

References

World Resource Institute, earthtrends.wri.org.

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Centre, cdiac.esd.ornl.gov, cdiac.ornl.gov/trends/emis/meth_reg.htm and ghg.unfccc.int.

“Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fuels: A Procedure for Estimation and Results for 1950–82”, 1984, G. Marland and R.M. Rotty, Tellus, 36(B): 232–61.

United Nations Environment Programme, www.unep.org/ozone and www.unep.ch/ozone/15-year-data-report.pdf.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, www.unfccc.int.

World Meteorological Organization Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, www.ipcc.ch.

Indicators of Sustainable Development: Guidelines and Methodologies, 2001, United Nations Division for Sustainable Development (www.un.org/esa/sustdev/natlinfo/indicators/isd.htm).

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/data).

 

Periodicity of measurement

Data are usually collected annually.

 

International data comparisons

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Centre, cdiac.esd.ornl.gov, cdiac.ornl.gov/trends/emis/meth_reg.htm and ghg.unfccc.int.

United Nations Environment Programme, www.unep.org/ozone and www.unep.ch/ozone/15-year-data-report.pdf.

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/data).

 

Comments and limitations

For carbon dioxide emissions, trend data are more reliable than data comparisons between countries.

 

For ozone depletion, the indicator does not reveal much about current trends in deterioration of the ozone layer because of delays in ecosystem response.

 

Agencies   

Carbon dioxide:

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

United Nations Statistics Division.

 

Chlorofluorocarbons:

United Nations Environment Programme, Ozone Secretariat.


29. Proportion of the population using solid fuels (data not yet available)

 

Definition

Proportion of population using solid fuels is the proportion of the population that relies on biomass (wood, charcoal, crop residues and dung) and coal as the primary source of domestic energy for cooking and heating.

 

Goal/target addressed

Goal 7. Ensure environmental sustainability.

Target 9. Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources.

 

Rationale

Incomplete and inefficient combustion of solid fuels results in the emission of hundreds of compounds, many of which are health-damaging pollutants or greenhouse gases that contribute to global climate change. There are also important linkages between household solid fuel use, indoor air pollution, deforestation and soil erosion, and greenhouse gas emissions. Exposure to indoor air pollution is a complex phenomenon and depends on interactions of pollution source (fuel and stove type), pollution dispersion (housing and ventilation) and the time-activity budget of household members. The type of fuel and participation in cooking tasks have consistently been the most important predictors of exposure.

 

Method of computation

The indicator is computed as the ratio of households using one or more unprocessed solid fuels (dung and crop residues, wood, charcoal, and coal) for cooking and heating, to the total population, expressed as a percentage.

 

Data collection and source

Data can be derived from household surveys, such as Living Standard Measurement Surveys and Demographic and Health Surveys, and from population censuses. Standard questions for inclusion in all nationally representative household surveys have not been developed yet, and no internationally comparable data are available.

 

References

“Energy and Gender Equality”, Gender and Development Briefing Notes, 2002, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/gender/resources/briefing).

Stakeholder Forum, www.earthsummit2002.org/es/issues/gender.

 

Gender issues

More than half the world’s households cook with unprocessed solid fuels, exposing primarily women and children to indoor air pollution, which can result in serious health problems, such as acute respiratory diseases. In addition, women spend more time than men gathering fuel wood.

 

International data comparisons

The World Health Organization has produced estimates of regional aggregates for this indicator. However, no country data series are available to allow comparison across countries or assessment of trends.

 

Comments and limitations

Development of standard questions for inclusion in all nationally representative household surveys and censuses is needed to obtain data for calculating this indicator and allowing comparisons across countries.

 

Because the use of solid fuels affects both the environment and the population as a whole and the health status of those directly exposed, guidelines should clearly set definitions and measurement standards for what is intended by “exposure”.

 

Agencies   

National statistical offices.

World Health Organization.


30. Proportion of the population with sustainable access to an improved water source, urban and rural

 

Definition

The proportion of the population with sustainable access to an improved water source, urban and rural, is the percentage of the population who use any of the following types of water supply for drinking: piped water, public tap, borehole or pump, protected well, protected spring or rainwater. Improved water sources do not include vendor-provided waters, bottled water, tanker trucks or unprotected wells and springs.

 

Goal/target addressed

Goal 7. Ensure environmental sustainability.

Target 10. Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation.

 

Rationale

The indicator monitors access to improved water sources based on the assumption that improved sources are likely to provide safe water. Unsafe water is the direct cause of many diseases in developing countries.

 

Method of computation

The indicator is computed as the ratio is the number of people who use piped water, public tap, borehole or pump, protected well, protected spring or rainwater to the total population, expressed as a percentage. The same method applies for the urban and rural breakdown.

 

Access to safe water refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate supply of safe water in their dwelling or within a convenient distance of their dwelling. Global Water Supply and Assessment Report 2000 defines reasonable access as “the availability of 20 litres per capita per day at a distance no longer than 1,000 metres”. However, access and volume of drinking water are difficult to measure and so sources of drinking water that are thought to provide safe water are used as a proxy.

 

The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the World Health Organization (WHO), through the Joint Monitoring Programme, assess trends in “access to improved drinking water sources” by drawing a regression line through the available household survey and census data for each country (details are available at http://www.childinfo.org). Regional and global estimates are aggregated from these national estimates using population-weighted averages.

 

Data collection and source

Since the late 1990s, data have routinely been collected at national and subnational levels in more than 100 countries using censuses and surveys by national governments, often with support from international development agencies. Two data sources are common: administrative or infrastructure data that report on new and existing facilities, and data from household surveys, including Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, Demographic and Health Surveys and Living Standard Measurement Surveys. Before these population-based data were available, provider-based data were used.

 

Evidence suggests that data from surveys are more reliable than administrative records and provide information on facilities actually used by the population.

 

References

The State of the World’s Children, annual, United Nations Children’s Fund (www.unicef.org/publications).

Global Water Supply and Sanitation Assessment 2000 Report, 2000, World Health Organization and United Nations Children’s Fund (www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/Globassessment).

Indicators of Sustainable Development: Guidelines and Methodologies, 2001, United Nations Division for Sustainable Development (www.un.org/esa/sustdev/natlinfo/indicators/isd.htm).

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/data).

World Health Organization Yearbook (www3.who.int/whosis). [Can’t find this report on this Web site or WHO site. World Health Report meant?]

 

Toolkit on Gender in Water and Sanitation, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/gender/resources/wstlkt4.pdf).

“Water, Sanitation and Gender Equality”, Gender and Development Briefing Notes, 2003, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/gender/resources/briefing).

 

Periodicity of measurement

Administrative data are often available annually. Household surveys are generally conducted every three to five years.

 

WHO and UNICEF annually compile international data and prepare regional and global estimates based on household survey data.

 

Gender issues

Women and men usually have different roles in water and sanitation activities. These differences are particularly pronounced in rural areas. Women are most often the users, providers and managers of water in rural households and the guardians of household hygiene. If a water system breaks down, women are more likely to be affected than men because they have to travel farther for water or use other means to meet the household’s water and sanitation needs.

 

Disaggregation issues

The indicator should be monitored separately for urban and rural areas. Because of national differences in characteristics that distinguish urban from rural areas, the distinction between urban and rural population is not amenable to a single definition applicable to all countries. National definitions are most commonly based on size of locality, with rural population as the residual of population that is not considered urban.

 

International data comparisons

World Health Statistics, annual, World Health Organization (www3.who.int/whosis). [Can’t find this publication. Do you mean World Health Report? www.global-health.gov/worldhealthstatistics.shtml]

 

Demographic and Health Surveys, www.measuredhs.com.

Living Standards Measurement Study, www.worldbank.com/lsms.

The State of the World’s Children, annual, United Nations Children’s Fund (www.unicef.org/publications).

World Development Indicators, annual, World Bank (www.worldbank.org/data).

 

 

Comments and limitations

When data from administrative sources are used, they generally refer to existing sources, whether used or not. Despite official WHO definitions, the judgment about whether a water source is safe is often subjective. Also, the existence of a water supply does not necessarily mean that it is safe or that local people use it. For these and other reasons, household survey data are generally better than administrative data, since survey data are based on actual use of sources by the surveyed population rather than the simple existence of the sources.

 

While access is the most reasonable indicator for water supply, it still involves severe methodological and practical problems. Among them:

·        The data are not routinely collected by “the sector” but by others outside the sector as part of more general surveys.

·        Water quality is not systematically addressed.

·        The timing of collection and analysis of household survey data is irregular, with long intervals between surveys.

 

Agencies   

National statistical offices.

United Nations Children’s Fund.

World Health Organization.


31. Proportion of the urban and rural population with access to improved sanitation

 

Definition

Proportion of the population with access to improved sanitation refers to the percentage of the population with access to facilities that hygienically separate human excreta from human, animal and insect contact. Facilities such as sewers or septic tanks, poor-flush latrines and simple pit or ventilated improved pit latrines are assumed to be adequate, provided that they are not public, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children’s Fund’s (UNICEF) Global Water Supply and Sanitation Assessment 2000 Report. To be effective, facilities must be correctly constructed and properly maintained.

 

Goal/target addressed

Goal 7. Ensure environmental sustainability.

Target 10. Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation.

 

Rationale

Good sanitation is important for urban and rural populations, but the risks are greater in urban areas where it is more difficult to avoid contact with waste.

 

Method of computation

The indicator is computed as the ratio of the number of people in urban or rural areas with access to improved excreta-disposal facilities to the total urban or rural population, expressed as a percentage.